Where did the paper money
• Where did paper money
It is widely known that the Chinese gave to mankind a lot of useful things - gunpowder, porcelain, compass, and more precisely in China there were the first paper money. And that contributed to the emergence of the first paper money, how they were made and thanks to whom the first bill came to Europe, will be discussed in this review.
Copper Coin Shang Dynasty, which was found in the tomb, is the earliest known currency, which had a mass circulation. Her appearance attributed to the XI century BC. Such metal coin with a square hole in the center have been recognized by the standard trading currency. The coins were silver, and gold, and since there are quite a long time, we can talk about their effective protection against counterfeiters. However, there was one very significant problem - the rich man was quite difficult to take with the desired amount of money. They had to be transported on carts pulled by donkeys.
Chinese market square with shops and stalls. Close-up pictures of the Zhang Zeduana (1085-1145)
That's why there are "Jiaozuo". Due to security reasons and the need to closely monitor the economy, the Chinese government during the Song Dynasty licensed special facilities for storage of coins people (the forerunner of the banks). People kept their coins in these institutions, as well as a confirmation of how many coins are in the store, they were given a special banknote paper. Seeing that this method is very effective, the government began to issue banknotes as the official currency for trade. Thus were born the world's first official paper money.
It looked like the world's first paper money "Jiaozuo"
When the Song Dynasty in China, there was gunpowder, the compass and the navy. And the first paper money appeared even during this dynasty. An alternative form of currency that has become more user-friendly replacement for square perforated coins first appeared in the capital of Sichuan, Chengdu in the X century. It is these bills are the first in the history of paper money. That is why it is believed that at the time of the Song Dynasty, China has made great economic leap forward.
Many factories in printing of money have been equipped with special ink six different colors. These factories were located in four different areas of China - Chengdu, Angie, Hangzhou and Huizhou.
For banknotes deposited drawings and symbols in honor of the emperor, and other important public persons and painted landscapes of the Song Empire.
to A sketch of "Nong Shu" Wang Zheng (1313 BC. E.). Left blast furnace for iron making, and right mechanical device driven by a waterwheel
To prevent counterfeiting, the government used special dyes from a variety of plants and fibers. The document notes that the first banknotes were very fragile and could serve for only three years, so they can be used only in certain regions of the empire. Despite the fact that the metal coins are more difficult to forge than paper prints deposited on Jiaozuo few seals to make them harder to counterfeit.
It is reported that the banknotes were signs that warned and threatened by potential counterfeiters. Anyone who has tried to forge money, threatened by death by decapitation, and the man who gave the swindler, handed a decent amount of money.
Banknotes of the Yuan Dynasty. They were inconvertible paper money and legal tender.
Jiaozuo money printed in a single standard, and they have been legal tender in every part of the empire in 1265. Jiaozuo be economically provided with silver and gold, and the banknotes were a "1" and "100".
The process of smelting iron ore to manufacture forged iron. Illustration on the right depicts the blast furnace. Encyclopedia "Tiangong Kywe", 1637
After in 1279 the Song Empire conquered the mighty Mongols, paper money, having existed for 9 years, disappeared. Later, Yuan dynasty, founded by Kublai Khan, picked up experience pechataliya paper money and began to issue their own notes - "ciao".
Impressed with the innovative idea of currency, supported by the government, the famous explorer Marco Polo brought new money in Europe, when he returned from his trip to Kublai Khan.
Coin Northern Song.
Official banknote Chinese Southern Song Dynasty, 1160
The reign of the Yuan dynasty was short and came to an end in 1368. Due to the uncontrolled increase in printing of the national currency, as well as the fact that paper money was backed by gold or silver, at the time of this dynasty began, inflation and economic problems.
During the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644), which is again recognized as the silver standard currency sometimes print paper money, but the process was finally stopped in 1450. And since in China there were banknotes, almost to the end of the XIX century, when China began to publish the yuan during the Qing Dynasty.