From the history of educational buildings in Russia
• From the history of educational buildings in Russia
Orphanage - an initiative that emerged in Russia during the reign of Catherine the Great. These houses were built in Moscow and St. Petersburg, and intended to stay orphans, foundlings and other "disadvantaged" babies. Initially it was assumed that these homes will become the salvation for these kids: here to feed them, provide them with content, as well as teach literacy. However, in practice it was not so rosy: foster homes have become a place of mass infant deaths ...
Moscow Foundling Hospital started its work in 1764, St. Petersburg - four years later. It was assumed that in such houses will be brought up children who grow up to form t. N. "Third Estate", will work in the factories and to develop production, to be successful merchants and people of art. Work Educational homes supervised specially assembled Board of Trustees. It is the responsibility of guardians and trustees is to collect donations for the children, since public funding was not allocated. Catherine herself regularly aired houses thousands of donations, also called for and closest associates.
The Foundling children brought anonymously, kids willingly accepted without documents. When the institutions work and the maternity ward, where midwives assisted women in childbirth assistance. Was born babies are sent to foster homes. It would seem that the initiative was lovely, but it was not possible to achieve positive results. First, there was the problem of feeding infants, which were carrying hundreds in the house. If staff nurses are "understaffed", immediately followed by a succession of starvation. Secondly, in the homes of permanent case of an epidemic, the medicine was then still at a primitive level. Despite the fact that the houses were designed for the education of children until they reach the age of 16 years, in fact up to that number survived no more than 10% of pupils.
Scenes Orphanage life in the early 1880s.
Just two houses received about 30-40 thousand children every year, but, contrary to expectations, the institutions do not grow, and operated in the usual way. The number of children was regulated by "natural selection." Changes occurred in 1830: according to the order of Nicholas I, took the children now in foster homes for a few months, when they were not a nurse, and after - was determined to be raised in farm families. However, almost half of children under this redistribution simply do not survive.
The procedure for admission of children changed in 1891, it was decided to only accept babies with documents and foundlings transfer police for further investigation. Peasant families who agreed to take on the education of children, are charged monthly content - up to 4 per month. Money was paid until the child reaches 15 (for girls) and 17 years (boys) age.
In order to monitor the adoptive parents of children sealing system has been introduced: for each pet Orphanage (namely children and were called at that time) put lace with medallion. Such decoration seal, so "outweigh" it to another child was impossible. Upon presentation of the seal issued money. Today, this method may seem inhumane, but at that time to come up with other ways of "labeling" of foster children was difficult. Photos were not, remember in the face of every kid, police officers could not, and farmers often use it, "substituting" an adopted child of the deceased to their own close to him in age.