Smoking in Russia and in the world from which we want to save the Ministry of Health

Smoking in Russia and in the world from which we want to save the Ministry of Health

The draft concept for the fight against smoking, prepared by the Office, the debate is sparked. In the context of this public health problem is multifaceted and ambiguous. We have gathered the basic facts about the epidemiology of smoking that will help orient in the flow of the argument.

Smoking in Russia and in the world from which we want to save the Ministry of Health

When the Russians began to smoke?

European Smoker 520 years, Russia - about 370 take a great interest in tobacco started under Ivan the Terrible. Because of the difficulties with the supply of tobacco vodilos exclusively in the nobility. However, the privilege of a bad habit did not save her from the king's prohibitions. Mikhail Romanov without regret burning the smuggled goods, and merchants and consumers physically punished.

Times have changed, multiplied and prohibitions - Tsarist, Soviet, minzdravovskie. In parallel, the number of smokers increased.

When smoking most tightly fought?

Smoking was named the main reason for the fire of Moscow in 1637. Since smokers came the dark times. "Nowhere to Russian people and foreigners all sorts of tobacco in his did not hold, and did not drink, and tobacco are not sold," - read the decree of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich. Violators were sentenced to death, which in practice results in "cuts" of the nose.

Conciliar The Code of 1649 provides for "repair punishment without mercy, under the death penalty" for Russian and foreigners. Only with the arrival of Peter I, smokers were able to breathe easy - the sovereign reformer legalized the sale and set rules for tobacco distribution.

"Ironically, the tighter nuts all swirled in the most stagnant years. The trend observed since tsarist times ", - said Andrei Loskutov, executive director of the All-Russian Movement for the rights of smokers. "When in the 20-30-ies the Soviet Union was transformed into an industrial power, no one even hinted about the harmfulness of tobacco. Incidentally, the first All-Russian Agricultural and Handicraft and Industrial Exhibition (now known as ENEA) opened pavilion "Makhorka".

Smoking in Russia and in the world from which we want to save the Ministry of Health

How many Russians smoke today?

In 2016, the proportion of smokers has dropped to seven-year low and amounted to 31% of Russians, according to Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM). But there are those who have remained faithful to a bad habit, in spite of all prohibitions. Of 16%.

From 2009 to 2016 the number of smokers has decreased from 41% to 31%, noted in the Ministry of Health. Notable results have been made possible thanks to a range of measures - prohibition of advertising, sponsorship, restrict smoking in public places.

"There are public relations, which should be governed by a ban. And a ban on smoking in public places - is exactly the case when it is effective. As experts estimate, the greatest contribution to reducing consumption is a ban on smoking in public places, "- highlights one of the authors of the current anti-smoking legislation Oleg Salagaev.

How many new smokers appear every year?

Despite the optimistic figures, smokers ranks are replenished each year with new faces. And it's not only in Russia - a trend worldwide.

"Statistics on the world is. Since 1980, when the next wave of anti-tobacco in the world, the number of smokers has begun to grow by 8 million people annually. Concept put forward and accepted, and Vaska listens but eat, that is smoked. And Hans, and John, and Jean "- sums up the Andrei Loskutov.

Smoking in Russia and in the world from which we want to save the Ministry of Health

How do I change the age and gender composition of the smokers in the last 10-20 years?

Summarizing the positive figures from the Ministry of Health reports, adolescents over the last 8 years have been smoking less. Both boys and girls. However, in parallel with the medical statistics changing social statistics, which calmly states: smoking is much rejuvenated in recent years. "Prior to the anti-tobacco company first touch of tobacco, our sociologists were fixed in 13 years. Now - 11, 5. It is hardly a coincidence. Forbidden fruit is always sweet, "- cites Andrei Loskutov.

How many people die "smoking" in Russia and in the world?

The exact figures will not name any single agency. Yes, smoking increases the risk of developing lung cancer 15-30 times, bladder cancer, pancreas and other organs. Heart attacks, lung disease, cardiovascular problems - it is also the consequences of smoking. Millions worldwide die from them.

Smoking in Russia and in the world from which we want to save the Ministry of Health

How many will lose budget if all Russians to quit smoking?

Excise taxes on tobacco - one of the most important articles of the state budget revenues. In 2017, their increase will bring huge treasury 35 billion rubles, in 2018 - 82 billion in 2019 -126 000 000 000.

According to the chairman of the International Confederation of Consumer Societies (KonfOP) Dmitry Yanin, completely restrict the purchase of tobacco is not economically viable: Russian excise has room to grow. While our national tax is at the African level. But habit is a downside.

"Budget revenues from excise taxes on tobacco is 4-5 times lower than the losses of the state and family budgets treatment 40,000,000th army smokers. And this illness requiring expensive treatment. "

What happens if all Russians suddenly quit smoking?

Millions of people are employed in the tobacco industry, will lose their jobs. Bankrupt production, producing related goods (lighters, ashtrays, cigarette holders, and so on). Decrease sales of chewing gum. Incur losses hypermarkets and small shops. Hospitals will miss many patients. As a result, the long-awaited utopia can turn the global financial crisis. At the same time, competent reorientation of production and social life, to win a majority. "Smoking - a risk factor number 1 in premature death and disability reduction a key factor in our country. So if smokers could one day wean from the habit, the country and the family budget just won, "- said Dmitry Yanin.