Five outstanding individuals who have been victims of the Inquisition
February 17, 1600 by a court verdict of the Inquisition in Rome, one of the greatest thinkers of the Renaissance, Giordano Bruno was burned. His scientific research on the structure of the universe considered heresy that undermines the foundations of the faith. In essence, they do not undermine the faith and worldview imposed by the church. And the Inquisition was created to ensure that the Catholics did not dare to contradict the dogmas of the church and out from under the influence of the Holy See.
For six centuries, that there was the Inquisition, millions of people were undesirable and were executed or ended their lives in exile. Among them are many epochal figures whose names will never fade in the pages of history.
Joan of Arc (1412-1431)
The legendary Joan of Arc was a commoner, which in the age of 13 began to appear in the visions of the saints. The Hundred Years War was raging, and the voices allegedly urged Jeanne to go cap in hand to the heir to the throne of Charles VII of, to convince him to attack the British and drive them from the land of the French.
There was a prophecy that God would send a savior of France as a young virgin. Therefore, when Jeanne achieved an audience of the king and the interrogations had convinced him that it sent to the higher powers, the girl was entrusted to command and control. The white armor, riding a white steed Jeanne really was like an angel, a messenger of God. The Maid of Orleans, demonstrating remarkable for a young peasant ability and scoring one victory after another, its army is entering more and more people inspired by the way the holy warriors.
In 1430 Joan was taken prisoner. British to justify their defeat, accused her of having links with the devil, and handed over to the Inquisition. Woman forced to recant his "delusions", has put a stigma heretic and May 30, 1431 burned at the stake, tied to a pole in the area of Rouen. After 25 years at the request of Charles VII, who did not lift a finger to rescue Jeanne, the process has been revised and the unfortunate acquitted.
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)
Neapolitan philosopher Giordano Bruno actively popularized the ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus. Copernicus developed in his writings the concept of the heliocentric system of the world, was persecuted by the church, but still has not been convicted. The fate of his successor was more tragic.
Developing the theory of Copernicus, Bruno put forward the idea of the unity of the universe and the plurality of inhabited worlds. But the Inquisition pursued him rather than for scientific opinions, and for his criticism of generally accepted ideas about the afterlife. Moreover, he called the religion a force that creates war, strife and evils of society. Such clergy could not forgive.
In 1592, the Italian seized and eight years thrown into prison. Torture urged him to back down, but Bruno stayed true to himself. The court passed the death sentence. Having ascended to the scaffold, the scientist said: "Burn - does not mean to deny! The coming century will appreciate and understand me! "After two and a half centuries in Campo dei Fiori, where took place penalty, erected a monument to Giordano Bruno.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
The heliocentric system, as we know, was true, so with many scientists have come to it over time. Including outstanding Italian physicist, astronomer and mathematician Galileo Galilei. For defending heretical ideas in 1633, he was put on trial.
The trial lasted only two months. With Galileo treated relatively gently due to the fact that he patronized the Pope Paul V. Historians believe that the scientist is called, actively cooperated with the investigation and quickly renounced his ideas. So the legend that after the trial Galileo shouted sacramental: "And yet it moves" - questioned.
Page from the minutes of the interrogation of Galileo Galilei with his signature.
Nevertheless physics is still sentenced to life imprisonment. However, soon the punishment was replaced by house arrest, and the rest of his life, Galileo spent under the supervision of the Inquisition.
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
In contrast to Galileo, the poet Dante was a fervent fighter for his beliefs. He regularly attended church, honored ministers, but as a true humanist, he could not accept the cruel sentence, which the Lord makes sinners. Among which, in his opinion, a lot of decent people.
In his great poem "The Divine Comedy" written in the first person, Dante regret gluttons, pagans, soothsayers, and sometimes his compassion is so great that he can not hold back the tears. Naturally, such a conviction of God's will could not but annoy the Inquisition. In addition, the description of the journey of purgatory was pure heresy, because the doctrine of purgatory was introduced much later, the church.
Dante was wicked also because he openly criticized the Pope's politics and was an active participant in the political struggle in Florence. Inquisitors persecuted poet, and in 1302 he was forced to leave his native city forever.
Jan Hus (1369-1415)
In the XV century in Europe began the era, known in history as the Reformation - the struggle against the Catholic Church and papal authority. One of the first notable figures of this movement was the Czech theologian Jan Hus. He traveled through the cities and lectured exposing the feudal lords and the clergy.
Gradually the impact on people's minds Hus has become so great that the pope issued a special bull, Czech priest excommunicated from the church. His sermons were banned, but Gus has continued its educational activities.
In 1414 he was summoned to the Church Council in Constance, Germany, ensuring complete security. But as soon as the thinker to come into the city, he was arrested and imprisoned the Holy Inquisition, where he spent seven months. Even under torture Gus he did not repent, for which he was sentenced to be burned. A fire built on a nearby square. When the fire has already taken, a certain old woman tossed in a fire a bundle of firewood. "The holy simplicity," - said bitterly Gus.