Evolution of the banana from the fruit of the forest to the GMO product
• The evolution of the banana from the fruit of the forest to the GMO product
Bananas are widely considered to be a very welcome addition to the daily diet. By and large, the way it is - these fruits have an impressive array of vitamins and minerals, a positive influence on the human body. But he does not know virtually none: Modern banana - the fruit of the labor of generations of genetic engineers. Here's how evolved from the usual banana forest fruits to the GMO product.
This Gros Michel - variety is called in the US "Big Mike". Bananas were exotic delicacy until the end of 1800 when the United Fruit Company literally flooded the US market with this product.
Gros Michel was creamy and sweet, tolerant to the product to be carried. Such bananas could throw into the hold of the ship green, and the place of destination has to get ripe.
The first shipment of bananas from the UFC almost entirely inherited port workers - the company has not yet been able to calculate the time of maturation is true.
The same UFC cleared hundreds of square kilometers of forest in order to organize their banana plantations. This has led to dire consequences: the local population perished in the works, the local flora and fauna are dying due to a violation of the ecosystem.
And even these measures have not helped us. Grade "Big Mike" was very susceptible to so-called "Panama disease" - UFC damage was incredible at the time $ 18, 2 billion.
In the market there and then there was a new player. Standard Fruit Company has introduced a new kind of consumers of bananas "Cavendish". This fruit could withstand the contagion, but was less tasty and had a thin skin, which created some difficulties in transit.
The original banana variety "Cavendish" grown in special greenhouses on the shores of England. In 1950, this type of breeding is completely replaced with the US markets Gros Michel.
bananas "Cavendish" were sterile. So, the only way to grow - biological development. That, as you know, is not the safest thing in the world.
Experiments breeders have led to the evolution of "Panama disease". Fight it was very difficult, strains penetrated even to the distant plantation Taiwan. A small amount of contaminated soil enough to infect a huge plot.
The biologists are still trying to find a rational method of restraint dangerous strain. At the moment, most of the bananas around the world exposed to genetic modification - as in no hurry to sound the newspaper and manufacturers.
Some scientists are trying to find another way. Laboratory experiments have shown that you can try to restore the extinct varieties of banana, which may be resistant to existing diseases. Unfortunately, the breeders of the results will have to wait a long time. And yet - we all have to be content with that offer genetic engineers. Bon Appetit!