Myths and truth about the Roma
Roma lifetime were surrounded by speculation, myths and tales that are passed down from generation to generation. And all these myths are firmly rooted in the minds of not only ordinary people but also among writers and journalists. We decided to look into the matter and found that the statements about the Roma's true, and that - not quite.
The Gypsies - nomadic people
It is impossible to imagine nomadism Roma as aimless wandering or romantic attraction to change places. For centuries, the foundation of life of the majority of them were crafts, Roma were skilled traders, skilled blacksmiths, jewelers and horse breeders. Therefore, based on this phenomenon were economic reasons: tabor artisans needed their product markets, artists needed a new audience for the performances, fortune tellers needed changing clientele. In each case the movement area has been defined and relatively small - about 300-500 square kilometers. And even once in the adverse conditions, the Roma are not in a hurry to leave the areas where they were persecuted. Thus were Sinti ethnic groups in Germany, kale - in Spain and trevelers - in England. They managed to survive being in the midst of legally organized violence.
In the Soviet Union in October 1956 issued a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council "On the admission for work Gypsies, vagrants," equates nomadic Gypsies to parasites and banning nomadism. Since then, 60 years have passed, and today every gypsy Russia has its own house (rare exceptions marginal character only prove the rule).
We have Roma Baron
This concept originated in Russia and is connected to the output of Johann Strauss operetta "The Gypsy Baron" in 1885. The Romani language is the word "Baro", which means a large, combined "baro manouche," or "baro paradise" - a big man, an important person. Due to the consonance of the word "Baro" and existing in European languages the word "Baron", it is the latter term came into use when talking about the Roma. A leader in the community or more people in the majority ethnic groups the Roma do not have, except Kelderari. In any case, baro - those people who are more educated than the rest, or simply live better, so for them can ask for advice, and they are in dialogue with the authorities.
The Roma are able to hypnotise and guess
The Gypsies know how wonderfully confusing and distracting, but not hypnotize. Roma had to make money, as well as the whole of Europe looked at them as strange and mysterious people with supernatural abilities, the most enterprising just started using this stereotype. Roma are well aware that a person has five senses and their need to "download" all together at the same time, to disorient the victim: sight -bright clothing, hearing speech -Quick, smell - a specific smell, touch - just patting the victim . And in my head a million gypsy necessary skills in the field of human psychology, which he taught from childhood. Quite simply, there is no magic.
The Gypsies - one people
The term "Roma - even in Africa Gypsies" was never understood by the Roma, because they fall into a completely different ethnic groups, which have their own languages, customs, religions, professions, folklore. Even the Roma themselves on this score composed many sayings: "Kazhnoneste narodoste EKX Chib, romende bottles Chiba" ( "Every nation one language, the gypsies many languages"), "Kitik Roma dakitik obychao: con nevestentsa torginela, con besplatnes leng Chorley , con pridanyosa otdela "(" How many Roma, many customs: bride who sells, who is free of stealing who pays dowry ") - writes about this famous tsyganoved Nikolai Bessonov.
The men wear earrings Roma
On the Internet you can read that the earring is a gypsy, he was the only son. Another statement - supposedly old wore large earrings, called "Gypsy horseshoe" to happiness accompanied. But in Russia the image of a gypsy with pierced ears entrenched through "Elusive Avengers" and Yashke Roma. In reality, Roma earring - only a part of the female image. Tsyganoved Kirill Kozhanov in one of his articles, even wrote that when he meets with Gypsies Kelderari (they reside in the territory of the Russian Federation), with whom he is quite friendly, they always asked to remove his earring.
The Gypsies do not work and do not study
The layer underclass citizens have in any nation, including the Gypsies. Those really have only basic education and are engaged in trade or sale of goods obtained by illegal means. But there are many members of this ethnic, assimilated to the land on which they live: they honor their culture, serve the state, engaged in science, etc. Each year, held in Prague Roma Congress, which brings together the best representatives of the Roma peoples... Singer and musician Elvis Presley, Nicholas Slichenko (actor and now director of the Moscow Music and Drama Gypsy Theater "Romen"), Zlatan Ibrahimovic (soccer player), Ivan Rom-Lebedev (Soviet actor) Dufunya Wisniewski (film director), Tony Gatlif ( film director, winner of the Cannes Film Festival prize), Alex and Michael Ilyinsky (writers), Alexander Berdnikov (musician, member of the "roots") - list of Gypsies who have contributed to science and culture does not end here, and we hope that it will only grow.
The Roma have never served in the army
It would be better to say - never start a war. But for the weapons they had taken, and more than once. Throughout the history of the Gypsies of various states were involved in armed conflicts: waged wars of the Ottoman Empire and against it, fought in the army of the French King Henry IV of, served in the Portuguese army, Russian Roma have risen on protection of the Fatherland in 1812 and in 1941 and .. etc. These served in the infantry, aviation and tank forces; many were awarded medals and orders.
Gypsy - freedom-loving
The spread of the myth of a free Gypsies in no small measure contributed to the poet Alexander Pushkin, created in a romantic poem "Gypsies" image of the passionate gypsy Zemfira. Alas, the beautiful story is far from reality. Zemfira was a fortress. In addition, all of its behavior is contrary to the traditional way of the Roma family, which complied with strict moral rules. Girl before marriage should keep the purity - otherwise she faces universal condemnation. Married, she can come only as a representative of their nationality (and parents choose groom s). And after the wedding, the gipsy must be in subjection to her husband in everything. So in real life, was hardly possible Zemfira romance with a stranger Aleko full view of the camp.
Meanwhile, with the light hand of Pushkin myth about the character of the gypsy I went for a walk across the world's literature. The charm of Pushkin's image affected and Prosper Merimee, who created a legendary image of Carmen. This character also has little to do with true gypsy, but for more than 100 years, its image excites the souls of men, inspire creativity of poets and composers.