"A guy names Arkhipov saved the world"! About this Soviet superhero
"A guy names Arkhipov saved the world", - said the director of the National Security Archive, Thomas Blanton in 2002 at a conference in Havana, dedicated to the Caribbean crisis.
Declassified documents from the US side indicated that in 1962 a nuclear war was far closer than they thought.
We publish a fascinating article on "Soviet superhero" had a significant impact on the course of history.
Future superhero Vasiliy Arkhipov was born in 1926 into a peasant family. He grew up in a small village Zvorkovo in the Moscow region. After 9 classes entered the Leningrad naval special school, and later, in 1942 started a preparatory course in the Pacific Higher Naval School.
For Vasily Arkhipov war began in 1945. Then the first time he participated in actual combat operations against Japan. Cadet commander entrusted with the role of understudy CU-1 (navigational warhead) to the trawler (a ship that destroys the sea mines and conducts other vessels through minefields) in the Pacific Ocean. When the war ended, Arkhipova, along with other cadets moved to Baku, where he learned not until 1947. During the service Arkhipov furrowed the Black Sea, the North Sea and the Baltic.
On board Hiroshima
In 1961 Vasily Arkhipov was the first Soviet nuclear submarine K-19 backup commander. In the Navy it was called Hiroshima - for repeated failure. July 4th boat was near the Norwegian island of Jan Mayen, when the right reactor accident. Half an hour later began to grow gamma activity, and when the reactor got cold water, radiation jumped sharply. Several officers mutinied, demanding to immediately flood the boat and the crew to land on the nearest island. Zateev commander gave orders to drown all small arms, pistols leaving only true sailors. Among them was Arkhipov, who was already captain of the 2nd rank. A day after the accident the crew landed on a diesel submarine, and later transplanted to the destroyers. All staff received a dose of radiation, and 8 people died in the hospital. The balance of the war
A year later, the war seemed inevitable. By 1962CSHA established in Turkey "Jupiter" missiles that 10 minutes can reach Moscow and the main industrial centers of the USSR. In response, the Soviet strategists have decided to place its own missiles in Cuba. The USSR would take about 20 minutes to launch a nuclear attack on Washington and a major US air bases. The situation grew tense: States discovered located in Cuba, anti-aircraft and ballistic missiles.
October 1, 1962 as part of Operation "Anadyr" 4 Soviet diesel boats set off from the Arctic Sea to the shores of Cuba. In the Barents Sea on board the loaded torpedoes, including the nuclear one. This torpedo is just a few minutes could reach US territory - and that would mean the beginning of a nuclear war. No instructions regarding the use of weapons had been received. Even Admiral Vitaly Fokin, while the Deputy Commander of the Navy, was unable to answer the question Arkhipova, given the day before: "It is not clear, Comrade Admiral, why do we have nuclear weapons. When and how should we use it? "Vasili Arkhipov got on the submarine B-59 as one of the three senior officers. The crew had to overcome the US naval blockade around Cuba and arrange the submarine base at the northern coast of the island.
October 27 submarine commanded by Valentin Savitsky, close to the shores of Cuba. Anti-Soviet armed forces were ready to meet the submarines: first they sought Norwegian seaplanes, then joined the British anti-aircraft "Shackleton" and American patrol "Neptune". But up to the Sargasso Sea, they have not been able to detect Soviet submarines. Against the B-59 aircraft carriers were led by 260-meter "Randolph". Sensors submarine showed 14 goals. Soviet submarine began to maneuver, but a long time to evade the Americans failed. B-59 squeezed into the ring and began to attack. In the course we went underwater grenades, which exploded right next to the board. Captain 2nd Rank Vadim Orlov, who was on board the submarine as radiorazvedchika, recalled: "It was like sitting in an iron barrel on which the pound sledgehammer. The situation for the crew - an unusual, not to say shocking. "
Make or Break
The situation in the submarine was critical. Batteries discharged to nearly zero: in order not to waste energy, leaving only emergency lighting. The cooling system was not working: it had to pour fresh water because of a failed diesel. The temperature in the compartment reaches 50 degrees, and in all Electromotive compartment 60. The crew stripped to laundry. carbon dioxide reached a near-fatal levels for people. Lookouts began to lose consciousness, fell one after another. To charge the batteries, it was necessary to emerge, but the top of the waiting aircraft carriers. According to Orlov, the Americans have launched a depth charge. Fuse in these boats running when hitting the hull of the boat.
The submarine B-59
Valentin Savitsky lost his temper. Contact the General Staff did not happen. While the key to the nuclear torpedo was the commander, but to carry out a blow he could only with the concurrence of the three senior officers on board. In addition, the order to be sure to get the top: for the application of conventional torpedoes had to be "good" in-Chief of the Navy, and for nuclear - the minister of defense. Tired commander ordered that the nuclear torpedo in fighting condition. Uncertainty scared: what if up there, has already started the war, but they have been slow? "We are now on them sharahnem! Themselves will perish, drown them all, but the Navy did not disgrace "- shouted Savitsky. The world stood on the brink of World War III. Confused people, under water, with little light and air could not decide whether to launch a torpedo. But in the end they changed their minds. What is the role played in this decision Vasily Arkhipov, hard to say. According to one version, he personally stopped Savitsky, pointing to signals that served American ships. According to the stories Vadim Orlov, were against the two senior officers. However, Arkhipov insisted on the abolition of nuclear attack.
After a short meeting decided to climb. Sonar signal is sent to "float the submarine." By early morning surfaced and immediately began to ventilate the room and charge the battery. Break out of the ring failed: American ships from all sides have put spotlights on the Soviet submarine. Sawicki ordered to raise the Soviet flag and give a semaphore message: "The ship belongs to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Stop your provocations. Commander".
With the submarine was reported in the General Staff, the Americans forced them to emerge. As it turned out, it was the second Soviet submarine, which had to climb. While the B-59 began firing with anti-aircraft "Trekker" at a distance of 20-30 meters. Then the submarine was under the gun destroyers. Of the General Staff received an order to break away from Americans and sail to Bermuda.
The submarine with discharged batteries was not ready to leave from prosecution. But I come to the aid of the case: in the "Randolph" burned tube in one of the boilers, and he had to leave for repairs. Aircrafts, for the G-59 has become smaller. The next morning the Americans have decided to rest on one of the destroyers made a small jazz concert with dancing. Soviet sailors Sawicki ordered Something Wicked and stay with dignity. When the officer of the watch began to beat foot rhythm of jazz music, the commander immediately caused him to go down.
What happened to the boat?
In the evening in the "convoy" of Soviet submarines there were only two destroyers. Probably, the Americans thought that the B-59's going back home. But Sawicki with Arkhipov thought out plan that would make it possible to outwit the enemy and go to the desired position. From time to time the destroyers checked on the spot if the boat using sonar systems and projectors. But vigilance they have already lost. To coincide when the Americans were distracted, the submarine quickly submerged to a depth of 150 meters. A few minutes destroyers did not understand anything. Also in the Soviet fencing felling built decoy that immersion was to remain on the surface and bring down the Americans confused.
Fidel Castro and Nikita Khrushchev
Submarine almost failed at depth and at high speed moved in the direction of Bermuda. To the commander it was a big risk: the battery barely enough for four hours. But Sawicki was hoping that if we can come off, get up and recharge at night. The plan worked: Americans rushed and could not understand where the missing Soviet submarine.
We have them cocked hat,
So the whole day the world stood on the brink of nuclear war. Later, during the analysis of the situation in Moscow, Deputy Defense Minister Andrei Grechko asked the commanders of submarines, was trapped in the Sargasso Sea, "Why do not you pop up? Why do not Americans threw grenades? "Good old Russian shapkozakidatelstvo almost turned into a disaster. However, thanks to the determination and judgment Vasily Arkhipov and stability of personnel, disaster could be avoided. Command of the Navy responded to the events off the coast of Cuba, laconically: "No one is encouraged and no one was punished." And the rest of the day nenachala Third World in secret, and his characters - in the shade.