The most ancient peoples of Russia

The most ancient peoples of Russia

, about 200 people living on the territory of Russia. The history of some of them away to distant millennium BC. We found out what the indigenous peoples of Russia the most ancient, and from whom they originated.

The Slavs

The most ancient peoples of Russia

There are many hypotheses of the origin of the Slavs - one relates them to the Scythian tribes from Central Asia, someone to mysterious arias somebody to the German people. Hence, different ideas about the age of the ethnic group, which made "for solidity" to add a few extra millennia.

The first, who tried to determine the age of the Slavic people, was a monk Nestor, based on the biblical tradition, he began the history of the Slavs with Babel, divided mankind into 72 people: "From the sih 70 and 2 language byst yazyk slovenesk ...".

In terms of archeology, the first culture, which can be called Slavonic was the so-called culture podkloshovyh burials, called from the custom cover the cremated remains of the large vessels, in Polish "bottoms", that is "upside down". It originated between the Vistula and the Dnieper in the V century BC. To some extent, we can assume that its representatives were the ancient Slavs.

The Bashkirs

The most ancient peoples of Russia

Southern Urals and adjacent steppe - an area where there was a Bashkir ethnos, since ancient times been an important center of cultural interaction. Archaeological diversity of the region puts researchers in a dead end, and writes the question of the origin of the people in the long list of "mysteries of history."

Today, there are three main versions of the origin of the Bashkir people. The most "archaic" - Indo-Iranian states that the main element in the formation of the ethnic group were Indo-Iranian Saka-Sarmatian tribes Massaget Dakho-early Iron Age (III-IV century BC), a place which has become Southern Urals settlement. According to another version of the Finno-Ugric, Bashkirs are "siblings" now Hungary since together they descended from the tribe of Magyars and Aeneas (in Hungary - EHO). This is supported by the Hungarian legend, recorded in the XIII century, the path of the Magyars from the East in Pannonia (modern Hungary), which they have done in order to take possession of the inheritance of Attila. Based on the medieval sources, in which Arab and Central Asian authors equate the Bashkirs and Turks, some historians believe that these people are related.

According to historian G. Kuzeev, drevnebashkirskie tribes (Burzyan, Usergan, Bailar, surash and others) were allocated on the basis of early medieval Turkic communities in the VII century BC and later mingled with the Finno-Ugric tribes and tribal groups of Sarmatian origin. In the XIII century in the historic Bashkortostan kypchakizirovannye invaded by nomadic tribes, which formed the shape of the modern Bashkirs.

In this version of the origin of the Bashkir people are not limited. Fascinated by the philology and archeology, social activist Salavat Gallyamov, put forward the hypothesis that the ancestors of the Bashkirs once came from ancient Mesopotamia and through Turkmenistan reached the South Urals. However, in the scientific community believe this version of the "fairy tale".

or Mari Cheremis

The most ancient peoples of Russia

The history of the Finno-Ugric Mari people starts at the beginning of the first millennium BC, along with the formation of the Volga-Kame so-called Ananyino archaeological culture (VIII-II century BC. E.).

Some historians identify them with a semi-legendary Thyssagetae - ancient people, who, according to Herodotus, lived near the Scythian land. Of them subsequently were allocated Mari Russell on the right bank of the Volga and Sura honey mouths Tsivil.

In the early Middle Ages they were in close cooperation from the Gothic, the Khazar tribes and Volga Bulgaria. By Mari Russia were merged in 1552, after the conquest of Kazan Khanate.

Sami

The most ancient peoples of Russia

The ancestors of the people of the north Sami - culture Komsa, came north to the Neolithic period, when these lands freed from the glacier. Ethnicity Sami, whose name translates as the very "ground" their roots back to the bearers of ancient culture and the Volga dofinskomu Caucasoid population. The second, known in the scientific world as a culture netted ceramics, inhabited in II-I thousand. BC wide territory from the middle Volga region to the north of Fennoscandia, including Karelia.

According to the historian I. Manyukhin, mingling with the Volga region tribes, they formed drevnesaamskuyu historical community of three related cultures: pozdnekargopolskoy in Belozerye, Kargopol and South-East Karelia, luukonsaari - in Eastern Finland and Western Karelia, kelmo and "arctic" in the northern Karelia, Finland, Sweden, Norway and the Kola peninsula.

At the same time there is a Sami language and develops the physical appearance of the falls (Russian designation of the Sami), which is inherent in these peoples, and today - low rise, wide-set blue eyes and blond hair.

Probably the first written mention of the Sami refers to the year 325 BC and found in the ancient Greek historian Pytheas mentions about some people "Fenny" (finoi). Subsequently, on them as Tacitus wrote in I century AD, describing the wild Fenian people living in the area of ​​Lake Ladoga. Today the Sami live in Russia in the Murmansk region in the status of the indigenous population.

The peoples of Dagestan

The most ancient peoples of Russia

On the territory of Dagestan, where they find the remains of human settlements dating back up to the 6th millennium BC, many people can boast of its ancient origins. This applies particularly to the peoples kavkasionsky type - Dargin, Laks. According to historian V. Alexeev, kavkasionsky group formed in the same territory that it occupies, and is now based on the oldest of the local population of the late Stone Age.

Vainakh

The most ancient peoples of Russia

Vainakh peoples, to whom are Chechens ( "nokhchi") and Ingush ( "Gilgal"), as well as the many peoples of Dagestan, are among the oldest kavkasionsky anthropological types in the words of another Soviet anthropologist Professor. Debetz, "most of all Caucasian Caucasian." Their roots should be sought in the Kura-Araxes archaeological culture, living on the territory of the North Caucasus in IV beginning of the III millennium BC, as well as in the Maikop culture, settled in the same period, the foothills of the North Caucasus.

Mentions about Vainakhs in written sources for the first time in Strabo, who in his "Geography" mentions some "Gargar" living in the small foothills and plains of the Central Caucasus.

In the Middle Ages the formation of Vainakh peoples strongly influenced by the state of Alanya in the foothills of the Northern Caucasus who died in the XIII century under the hooves of the Mongol cavalry.

Yukaghirs

The most ancient peoples of Russia

The small Siberian peoples Yukaghirs ( "people mezloty" or "distant people") can be called the oldest in Russia. According to the historian A. Okladnikova this ethnic group stood out in the Stone Age, approximately in VII millennium BC, in the east of the Yenisei.

Anthropologists believe that these people are genetically isolated from its neighbors - Tungus, is the most ancient layer of the indigenous population of polar Siberia. Their archaic evidence and persist custom matrilocal marriage, after marriage when the husband resides in the territory of his wife.

Until the XIX century, numerous tribes Yukagirs (Alai, anaoul, kogime, Lavrentsov and others) occupy a vast territory from the Lena River to the mouth of the Anadyr River. In the XIX century, their numbers start to decline significantly as a consequence of epidemics and civil strife. Part of the tribes has been assimilated by the Yakuts, Evens, and Russian. According to the 2002 census, the number of Yukagirs decreased to 1509 people