Which country was attacked by the Soviet Union during World War II
The Soviet Union in World War II was not only a victim of aggression, he himself was the initiator of the revision of the international borders. Some Western politicians see in the Soviet occupier, even during the operation to free Europe from Nazi troops.
Following the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, CCCR invaded Poland September 17, 1939. True, the Soviet government considered the occupation of its western neighbor is not an act of aggression and a desire to take care of fate was on the other side of the border Ukrainians and Belarusians. It was promised that the Poles will be given equal opportunities with other nations in "the international Soviet family."
In fact, it turned out differently. Poland to the interface between Germany and the USSR was a state with a market economy: in the country there was private property, operated a small, medium and large businesses operating commercial banks. Poles suddenly lost everything. Soviet authorities, of course, was not satisfied with the genocide of the Polish population, which took place in the German occupation zone, however, carried out mass arrests and seizures.
Enemies of Soviet power were not only the Polish bourgeoisie, but also representatives of the intelligentsia. All the "alien" in class terms the elements to be deported to the interior of the Soviet Union, mainly in the Urals, Siberia and Kazakhstan. According to Soviet data, from November 1939 to June 1941 were deported 389 382 man, according to the Polish - over a million. Tens of thousands of Poles were victims of deportation.
After the collapse of the Russian Empire in the west of the new country formed three small states - Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The legal status of the Baltic states was confirmed by international agreements and two contracts concluded with the Soviet Union, which operated until the beginning of World War II. After the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact fate of these states it was sealed. Latvia and Estonia fell into the Soviet sphere of influence, Lithuania departed Germany. However, during the Soviet occupation of Poland, Stalin offered Hitler to exchange Lithuania for an equivalent part of the Polish territory, and received consent. In September and October 1939, the Soviet Union concludes with the Baltic powers, new agreements, while placing military bases there.
Territorial and political uncertainty, the Baltic states came to an end in June 1940, when Moscow accused the three countries of violating agreements. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, additional contingents of Soviet troops were introduced, to ensure the victory in the election of pro-forces. At the end of July 1940 the new government announced the creation of the Baltic Soviet republics, which joined the USSR.
In the fall of 1939, the USSR invited Finland to conclude an agreement similar to the one that was signed with the Baltic countries. In Helsinki, said that the deployment in the territory of Finland, the Soviet military bases would be contrary to the existing position of "absolute neutrality" of the country. Finnish government reacted negatively on Moscow's idea to push the north common boundary in the area of the Karelian Isthmus to protect Leningrad against a possible German attack.
November 30, 1939 the Soviet Union launched a military solution of the territorial issue by invading outside Finland. The war that the Soviet Union expected to complete in a matter of weeks, lasted until March 13, 1940. At the cost of more than 126 thousand Red Army Soviet government forced to make concessions to Helsinki, ottorgnuv about 11% of Finnish territory. Britain and France have accused the Soviet Union in military aggression against a sovereign state, the bombing of Helsinki and numerous civilian casualties. They regarded it as the readiness of the Soviet Union to join the start of the European war on Germany's side. December 14, 1939 the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations.
According to a secret protocol Molotov- Ribbentropa Pact in the sphere of influence of the USSR fell Romanian Bessarabia. But Soviet troops entered the territory of Romania until the end of June 1940, after the Moscow Bucharest filed an ultimatum to immediately transfer to the Soviet Union not only Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina but.
On the claims of the Soviet Union in the Bukovina, which it was not in the Covenant, it was reported to Hitler. The Fuehrer protested increased Stalin's appetites, but reluctantly advised the Romanians to give up. June 27 Bucharest accepted the Soviet ultimatum, and already on July 1 of the Red Army, meeting no resistance, came to the new frontier of the Prut River and the Danube. Romanian soldiers who failed to withdraw from the occupied territories, were disarmed and taken prisoner.
The resulting "Romanian operation" USSR rooted tysyach area over 50 km2 (17% in Romania), which were about 3 million 770 thousand. Soon on the attached land was deployed activity of Soviet party organs, and August 2, 1940 proclaimed the Moldavian SSR. Initially, the local people are not discriminated against, but as the collectivization under repression and deportation were about 30 thousand "anti-Soviet elements".
Since March 1941 Bulgaria, as a member of the Tripartite Pact actively helped Germany in its military campaigns in the Balkans. However, under the influence of the anti-Hitler coalition wins in Bulgaria has started to develop a political crisis in the country intensified pro-power. August 26, 1944, the Bulgarian authorities announced on disarmament in the territory of the country's German units, when in fact continued to remain loyal to the Nazi regime. September 5, 1944 the Soviet Union declared war on Bulgaria, which is still held in its territory to 30 thousand German soldiers. In fact, Sophia did not want to enter into a confrontation with either the retreating Germans, nor the advancing Red Army. In fact, without encountering any resistance, part of the Red Army in the evening September 9 installed over Bulgaria full control.
After the collapse of the socialist camp, the new democratic government of Bulgaria became a skilled liberation of the country, which by that time had broken with Nazi Germany as the establishment of "the Soviet occupation regime." This, according to the modern Bulgarian politicians, cost the lives of 30 thousand of their countrymen who died from "communist terror."
Soviet troops entered the territory of Hungary in September 1944, but, despite the fact that the two countries had reached a formal truce, Hungarian troops continued to provide the Red Army resistance. Determined to keep Budapest was Hitler, saying that most will go to the surrender of Berlin than in the Hungarian oil loss.
Instead of liberation of Hungary from Nazi invaders Soviet Union actually had to declare war on it. The troops of the 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian fronts were opposed 35 divisions of Army Group "South" and the remnants of the Hungarian army. To avoid unnecessary bloodshed rate sent envoys in the Hungarian capital group with the proposal to surrender. However, all the Soviet delegation had been killed.
Budapest was destined to become the scene of bloody battles. Parts of the Red Army managed to take the Hungarian capital until the middle of February 1945. According to historians, in the "Budapest operation" it was surrounded and destroyed the 188 thousandth enemy group, but during the siege of the city killed more than 60,000 civilians.
In the spring of 1945 the Soviet Union was in a dilemma: to continue to comply with the terms of the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact, signed in April 1941 and to be faithful allied commitments made at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. April 5th the Soviet government denounced the Soviet-Japanese Pact, thereby paving the way for Japan's declaration of war.
According to historians, the war with Japan, the Soviet leadership started preparing in 1943 by deciding to build a railroad from Komsomolsk-on-Amur in Sovetskaya Gavan. Part of the Far Eastern Front attacked the Japanese troops in the early morning August 9th, 1945 - the same day when the US Air Force was subjected to atomic bombing of Nagasaki. The document on the declaration of war was handed to the Japanese Ambassador in fact an hour before.
The war lasted a little more than three weeks, it eventually became a complete rout of the Kwantung Army and the capture of 60 thousand Japanese soldiers, sent to work in Siberia. September 2 Tokyo signed the instrument of surrender, having fulfilled all the conditions of the Yalta Conference. The Soviet Union withdrew territory previously annexed by Japan - South Sakhalin and the core group of the Kuril Islands.