Amazing examples of ancient construction
Looking at the skyscrapers and dams, we see them as the apotheosis of human engineering, content with the fact that we can build whatever we want. However, we often forget about the technological wonders of ancient history - buildings and temples, which seemed unable to build a primitive culture.
Nevertheless, ancient history may surprise us by some impressive buildings. And to prove it to you - ten little-known examples of the striking ancient building.
10. Pueblo Bonito (Pueblo Bonito), USA
Located in the northwest of the State of New Mexico, Pueblo Bonito is the largest and most well-known example of the village, built by the ancestors of the Pueblo.
Construction of the village began in the first half of the X century AD and lasted for nearly 180 years, reaching its peak in the 800 individual rooms and a few buildings, which had as many as five floors.
The first village of Pueblo Bonito was discovered in 1849 by US Army Lieutenant James Simpson (James H. Simpson) and its conductor Karravahalem (Carravahal). Since then, this place has repeatedly carried out numerous archaeological excavations. A number of buildings were damaged as a result of the destruction of the rock overhanging the village.
(The name of the rock, some of which destroyed the territory of the village, is translated as "menacing rock", and this shows that the ancient builders were well aware of the possible danger.)
On the rock, located just behind the Pueblo Bonito, there are many petroglyphs depicting mysterious foot with six fingers, which were created around the end of X - beginning of XI century.
9. Çatalhöyük (Catalhoyuk), Turkey
Found in the southern part of the territory of Turkey, settlement of Çatalhöyük, according to some estimates, there are approximately 7500-5700 BC. e. It was built by members of an unknown Neolithic culture, which is believed to be very advanced. Excavations on the site continued since then, as the settlement was discovered in the late 1950s, British archaeologist James Mellaart (James Mellaart).
It was found a lot of items of interest to science, including the supposed, the oldest known map and some particularly rare daggers that period. Houses Çatalhöyük differ intriguing feature: they do not have doors, they were from the roof - the stairs.
In addition, the dead seem to be buried under the floor of the houses, in particular, under the hearth. However, based on the detection of defragmented some bones of the body, perhaps for some time left in the street, before the dead were buried in a closed room.
8. Lokmarake (Locmariaquer), France
Located in the French region of Bretagne (Brittany), Lokmarake - it is the largest group of existing European prehistoric megaliths.
Originally erected in about 4500 BC. e., the largest Lokmarake stone was almost 21 meters long and weigh 200-280 tons. (The exact weight can not be determined because the megalith known as "magic stone" has long been broken, probably as a result of the earthquake, but most likely by human hands.)
It is striking that the "magic stone" was moved in one piece from a quarry located at a distance of over 10 kilometers. It is not known exactly how he was taken, but it can deliver to swim to the nearby canal or just rolling on the ground, using wood stacks, representing a rolling logs on the wooden walkway. The purpose of this unknown place, although it is located dolmen (burial structure). Other studies have put forward theories that are somehow connected with the activity of the moon.
7. The Colossi of Memnon (Colossi Of Memnon), Egypt
erected as a monument to Pharaoh Amenhotep III and located outside of it now ruined temple, Colossi of Memnon - a pair of massive statues around 23 meters high. The statue depicts a seated Amenhotep III, as well on the front of the throne along the legs can be seen reliefs yoke wife, daughter and mother.
Statue named after Memnon, hero of the Trojan war, because he was the son of Eos, goddess of the dawn, of relevance to the unique attributes that once distinguished by one of the statues. After the statue had been damaged by the earthquake, the northern statue in the morning began to produce twang, reminiscent of the human voice (possibly due to air heated by the rays of the Sun, which took place through the cracks). The ancient Greeks believed that the so-Mnemon voice greeted his mother.
Today this is no longer possible to hear the sound because after the restoration of the statues, Implemented in 199 BC. e. by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus, he stopped.
6. Pompeyev column (Pompey's Pillar), Egypt
elevated as a monument Roman Emperor Diocletian (Diocletian) after suppression Alexandrines uprising Pompeyev column according erroneous theory, was erected a Roman commander Gneem Pompey Great. However, the inscription on the base of the monolith clearly indicates that the triumphal column was created in honor of Diocletian and presented him with the people of Alexandria. Myth associated with the death of Pompey and his head placed on a vessel in the funeral column top may have led to this confusion. Towering more than 27 meters in height, the monolith was erected in the IV century BC. e. Pompeyev column was part of a temple Serapisa (Temple of Serapis), Roman god Egyptian temple, which is now in ruins.
5. The dolmen Menga, or Dolmen of Menga (Dolmen Of Menga), Spain
Dating back to approximately 2000 BC. e., Menga dolmen is a large burial, known as the burial mound, which is located in the southern part of Spain. Several dolmen cavities were created with the help of a large number of extremely heavy blocks, which were stacked next to each other.
Wall, roof (consisting of four separate parts) and columns are made of the same breed. As for the name, the legend has it that lepers named Meng took refuge in the dolmen after her husband died.
Archaeologists believe that this dolmen is the largest such structure in Europe. Inside it, a few hundred human skeletons have been found, which may have belonged to members of the ruling group culture.
However, to this day it remains unknown who exactly built this building. This place July 15, 2016 was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites.
4. Quirigua (Quirigua), Guatemala
Built and completed by the ancient Maya somewhere between 200 and 800 AD. e., Quirigua city includes exemplary examples Maya architecture as well as some of the largest existing stele (carved stone monuments). Stela E weighs an incredible 65 tons. Stele is usually erected in the memory of any important event or as a funerary monument.
English architect Frederick Catherwood (Frederick Catherwood) was the first European who saw Quirigua, and since then this place several archaeological excavations have been carried out. Once the ruins of ancient Maya city, visited the English writer Aldous Huxley (Aldous Huxley), and wrote on the stelae that they erected in honor of the "human triumph over time and matter and the triumph of time and matter over man." Quirigua came into decline around 900 year BC. e., that was probably due to the termination of jade trade.
3. Dur-Sharrukin (Dur Sharrukin), Iraq
means "Fortress of Sargon" or "Fort Sargon", the ancient city of Dur-Sharrukin was built by the Assyrians in the interval between 717 and 707 BC. e. and it is located in the northern part of Iraq. City area of about 2 square kilometers 6 included god Nabu temple (god vegetation) and Palace.
However, the most interesting artifacts found in the ruins, is an Assyrian bull, stone work, which is estimated to weigh about 40 tons. It is the largest sample of the bull, with or without wings, in the history of mankind.
The first excavations in Dur-Sharrukin were produced under the direction of the French Consul General in Mosul, Paul-Emile Botta (Paul-Emile Botta) in 1843. During subsequent expeditions, several new discoveries were made. The city itself was abandoned soon after its construction was completed, as the king Sargon II was killed during the battle.
2. Kim Hajar (Hagar Qim), Malta
Located in Malta, Hagar Qim, is believed to have been built by an unknown culture between 3200 and 2500 BC. e. This culture is said to have been destroyed as a result of starvation or of a natural disaster, and left a few defining details.
Recognized as one of the earliest examples of religious places of worship, the temple in Hajar Kim includes several fertility goddess statue, known as the Venus, some of which are currently on display at the National Museum of Archeology (National Museum of Archaeology), Valletta (Valetta). Hagar Qim was built hundreds of years before Stonehenge.
1. Tiwanaku (Tiwanaku), Bolivia
The prehistoric capital of the Tiwanaku civilization, the city of the same name is located on the shores of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. It was originally a small village, which eventually grew into a city that flourished between 400 and 900 AD. e., becoming a place of location of a number of the largest stone structures in South America.
The city was deserted in about 1000 BC. e., most likely as a result of flooding. Tiwanaku civilization, eventually was conquered by the Incas, though the town then referred to their mythology, as it was believed that he was the starting point of humanity.
In Tiwanaku could live more than a million people. It remained abandoned until 1876, when an American archaeologist George E. G. Squier, Ephraim (Ephraim George Squier) opened it again. In 2000, Tiwanaku was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.