10 mysterious human populations
Mysterious human populations challenge our ideas about the world. Some of them are still shrouded in the shadow of the time; others are mysterious because of its isolation and unique stories of origin. The more we learn, the more difficult it becomes the history of man.
1. Population Y
America were the last line of the expansion of humanity. The majority of scholars are of the opinion that they were inhabited 15 thousand years ago during a wave gushed from Eurasia via the Bering land bridge. However, recent research has provided us with the facts that are relevant to an entirely different story. Recently, genetics, studying ancient skeletons, found that the Americas were populated by two different groups. Representatives of the first - Asian - had a relationship with most of the modern American Indians; Second, earlier - with modern Australasian region, which includes Australia, New Zealand, Papua - New Guinea and the surrounding islands of the Pacific.
The researchers found that some groups of Native Americans from the Amazon region (also known as Amazonia) are descended from people who were genetically more related to people Onge to the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal, the inhabitants of New Guinea Papuans and Australian Aborigines, than with modern Eurasians or American Indians. They have already managed to give the name of the new group - population Y.
It remains unclear when and how the population Y has reached South America. Scientists do not know how did this genetic link. They think that mixing occurred thousands of years ago, presumably among the first colonizers of America. Rather, they came across the Bering land bridge. In 2013, Brazilian scientists unexpectedly discovered Polynesian genetic traces in the DNA extracted from the teeth of the South American Indians Aimoré people who once lived in the territory of Brazil. Genes tribesmen were different from those that managed to find them. The history of the settling of America was much more interesting and varied than previously imagined.
2. The inhabitants of the Ramapo Mountains
At 50 kilometers from the city of New York, in "Appalachian Mountains of New Jersey," living a mysterious group of people known as the people of the Ramapo Mountains (they are also often referred to as "the Jacksons White"). Some scientists describe them as inbred Roma. Others insist that it is an albino, who are descendants of circus performers. Still others argue that Jackson Whites came from defectors Indians escaped slaves, Hessian mercenaries and West Indian prostitutes. However, in reality they are Indians Ramapo Mountains (or Lenape Indians).
Many of them have names such as De Groote, De Freyss, van der Donk and Mann. In order to conceal its origin, some representatives of the people of the Ramapo Mountains, consisting of African-Danish fugitive slaves and Indians Lenape, took the names of their owners, others - prominent New Yorkers. They all sides are discriminated against because they do not fit the stereotype of Native Americans. In 1993, Donald Trump said: "As for me, they do not look like Indians."
Guanches - the indigenous inhabitants of the Canary Islands. As the researchers note, they had blue eyes and blond hair, despite the fact that the island is located 100 kilometers off the coast of Morocco. According to the majority, they are descended from the Berbers, the indigenous inhabitants of Morocco. Many scientists believe that they were the best example of Cro-Magnon man, preserved thanks to the geographical isolation of the island. The majority of the representatives of the Guanches was haplogroup U6b, unknown on the African continent. However, it is structurally similar to haplogroup U6, Berber characteristic. The Spaniards colonized the Canary Islands in the XV century. The predominance of the Iberian paternal DNA says that the number of men Guanches in a period of sharply reduced - most likely because of the war.
4. Chinese Villagers Litsyan
Litsyan - is a village located in the northwest of China, on the edge of the Gobi desert. It has for many years conducted a heated debate about the origin of its inhabitants, which differ unusual for indigenous Chinese appearance - they have blonde hair, blue eyes and long noses. Most scientists are convinced that the people of Litsyan descended from the lost Roman legion.
In 53 BC the Romans were defeated by the Parthians. Legend has it that the soldiers fled to the east, where they settled and became mercenaries, warring against the Han Chinese. A recent genetic studies have shown that many people have Litsyan to 60% of Caucasian genes. However, no evidence in the form of artifacts "Roman theory" is nothing more than a myth.
Whatever it was, it did not prevent the Chinese government in turn Litsyan Roman theme park entertainment. The authorities have invested in the project $ 160 million. Here visitors can admire the ancient Roman architecture and see the battle re-enactment. Chinese government also plans to build a copy of Litsyan Coliseum.
5. The Pit Grave Culture
The representatives of the pit culture were mysterious people who had a huge impact. About five thousand years ago, these nomads left their homeland in the Pontic-Caspian steppe to disseminate their technologies and genes. Representatives of the pit culture are considered to be the first people to tame horses. They moved from place to place by means of wheeled carts and engaged in the transformation of the ore into bronze. Norwegians are required to half their genes of this particular group. Also, representatives of the pit culture traveled to the east and reached the Altai Mountains. Perhaps it was the Europeans they owe the fact that today can drink milk. Prior to the Bronze Age have 90 percent of Europeans there was lactose intolerant. Representatives of the pit culture had a mutation that allowed them to digest milk.
Duhare were mysterious group with which the Spaniards encountered when exploring the coast of modern Georgia. The first mention of them are contained in the book "The New World" ( "De Orbe Novo") and date back to 1530. They were higher than the Spanish, had reddish hair, bright eyes and bushy beard. They bred reindeer milk which makes cheese; This practice was not inherent in Native Americans. According to one of the fundamental theory, duhare evolved from pre-Columbian Irish pioneers.
When researchers re-examined the relationship duhare with Ireland, they received a startling clues. They could not make out the language duhare as long as they do not compare it with the Irish. Many in the scientific community about the Irish reject the theory of the origin, considering it untenable.
7. The invaders ice age
The majority of scientists believe that Europe was populated in three waves: hunter-gatherers, farmers from the Middle East and herdsmen from the steppe. However, recently conducted genetic studies have identified the fourth wave. More than 16,000 years ago, hunter-gatherers were displaced by the invaders who came from the south of Spain and the Balkan Peninsula. It happened at the end of the last ice age, during the sharp warming when extinct mammoths and saber-toothed tigers. Scientists have found that, after analyzing the remains of ancient Europeans. In European genomes, in contrast to the Asian and American, Haplogroup M (mtDNA) is completely absent. Researchers have found that haplogroup M is present in the genome of the Europeans to the last glacial maximum. Earlier reason for the absence of haplogroup M in the European genome considered flows of immigrants flooding in from Africa.
8. The Khazars
Hazara (Hazara), the third largest minority in Afghanistan, have been the object of persecution for centuries. They are Shiites, unlike its neighbors, the Sunnis. Many historians believe that its East Asian traits they inherited from the Golden Horde. In the XIX century about half of Hazaras were killed or sent into exile.
Genetic analysis showed that the Hazaras have a relationship with the Turko-Mongols. This confirms the theory that they are the descendants of Genghis Khan.
However, they also have the genes of indigenous people in the region, Tajiks and travelers along the Great Silk Road. Hazaras now make up half the population of Kabul.
In the mountains of Nilgiri in the south of India is home to a mysterious people Toda. Many believe that his representatives with light skin and eyes are very similar to the ancient Greeks. They turn into the fabric as Scottish Highlanders, and speak Dravidian languages. Their prayers remain undeciphered. They also traditionally practiced polyandry.
Britons have been fascinated by the mysterious todami. Some scientists consider them to be the lost tribe of Israel, or the descendants of the Greek Cypriots.
10. Unknown ancestor
non-Africans two percent of their genome are required to Neanderthals. These groups of the population of Oceania, as the Australian Aborigines and the people of Papua - New Guinea received 4 percent of their genetic information from the mysterious Denisovskoe people. These hominids in the past mingled with the ancestors of East Asians. Careful analysis Denisovskoye genome showed that this ancient form of people succumbed to the genetic influence of unknown ancestors.
Results of the study were presented at a meeting of the Royal Society of London, and immediately caused a wave of speculation. Some anthropologists believe that these "unknown fathers" are the Heidelberg people. They appeared in Africa about 500,000 years ago.