How to grow bumblebees in Belarus
• How to grow bumblebees in Belarus
- The whole process we will, of course, will not be able to show - immediately warns us at the entrance to the laboratory Ivan Klimko, head of the plant for production of bees and pollination of crops agricultural complex. - This know-how, trade secrets of our company.
Laboratory quite small: one-story house with several rooms. During the year there is born to 2, 5 thousand bumblebee families: 1700 of which go to the needs of the agricultural complex, and only the remaining few hundred sell to other Belarusian companies. I must say that this business is very successful: the profitability of more than one hundred percent.
- A bumblebee family (70 - 80 individuals) is from 60 to 90 dollars. Previously, and our company had to purchase them. And now we do everything ourselves, imagine what a savings! It's a lot of money, and therefore have to keep the technology secret, - says Ivan Klimko.
The need for bumblebees for pollination of agricultural crops in the whole Belarus is about 7000 families. Today, the right amount of buy accounts abroad: in the Netherlands, Belgium, Israel, Spain. To currency abroad was not taken out in the agricultural complex plan to build another laboratory, much more current.
- The foundation and walls are already standing, - answers Ivan Klimko. - But the exact date of the call seriously: we also build it for their own money, and bosses to decide on at the moment to send the funds you need.
"Bumblebees increase the harvest by almost a third!"
- Bumblebee is mainly used for pollination of agricultural crops in greenhouses. After pollination of bumblebees improved marketable product, palatability, better preserved fruit and yield is increased by 25 - 30%. Previously, this used manual labor. - And why specially grown bees if bees pollinate and can?
- Bumblebees working in 7 - 8 times faster than the bees. And they do not require special care, they do not have to constantly check, fed as bees. Bumblebee is not aggressive, flying in low light and low temperatures, and from the greenhouse bumble bees do not fly away as fast as the bees, - says the expert.
Pollinating bumblebees can almost any crops: tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplant and more. On their agricultural complex even used to pollinate orchard: plum blossom early and the bees at this time still do not fly - cold. Update bumblebee family in greenhouses or twice a month, and the total performance of one family - two months. At the end of "shelf life" family disposed of, however, almost all the bees fly away for two months or die - and the disposal there are only boxes with empty nest.
"Bumblebees are growing in a room with red lanterns"
Of all the 30 species of bumblebees, which are found in Belarus, domestication yielded only one - the earth bumblebee. It is this kind in the laboratory and produce. In principle, the whole algorithm bumblebee rearing families in the lab is almost entirely copied from the process of natural evolution in nature. However, in the laboratory, this process is a year-round, and faster. It all starts in the spring, when the laboratory staff go on nature with nets and catch shmelematok.
- We go to different regions of Belarus to find a new "blood", - said Head of the Laboratory Svetlana Giguere. - We need them to create more and more new families: if it starts blizkorodnoe pairing views degenerates, bumblebees from these families are working very bad. Then catch the uterus are quarantined and transferred to a "wedding room" for mating with drones. Then the uterus must be mature, to go through the aging process of the body. In nature, this period lasts about six months, and in the laboratory it speeded up to two months.
When I brought 5 - 6 bumblebees, they begin to help the uterus to raise a family, and the problem that - just to lay eggs. But correspondents "Komsomolskaya Pravda" show only the first, and the last stage of the wedding - the process of growth and development of the family. Everything in between - a trade secret. Bumblebee family grows for 4 - 5 months.
The room where the family grows, illuminated with red light. In this light, explain workers, bumble bee does not see and does not fly - so it is safer to work with. Bumblebee family should grow to 60 - 80 individuals, and then it goes on sale, or in the greenhouse agricultural complex. Now on the table is about fifty containers of bumble bees:
- That you do not come at the time, we now have recession, we are engaged in the breeding work - joking lab workers. - The hot season starts somewhere in February, then we all forced by these containers.
"Sometimes we bite 10 times a day"
In the laboratory, not counting the chief work of all five experts - all young girls. The Belarusian universities, though there are specialty "beekeeping", to breed bees do not teach. Therefore, the staff in-house, according to the few books and manuals, by trial and error, I had to scratch build its own technology to produce beneficial insects in the laboratory.
- Nowhere Well peep impossible. In Belarus, no one is doing is not, and in European laboratories on the threshold and we will not start up - everywhere all top secret, - says Ivan Klimko. Each laboratory room - your microclimate. Everywhere has a special technique that maintains a constant temperature and humidity in the room - so try to recreate the natural conditions of life of bumblebees. For example, in the "wedding room" is pretty fresh and cool, and in the next room, where the family bumblebee grow hot and the smell is very specific: it is, as the laboratory, bumblebee smell pheromones.
- Bumblebees are very sensitive to temperature changes. If something goes wrong, we immediately see. They will build on rooftops in their nests when they are cold. And when it's hot in the room is loud buzz - they are actively fanning wings, the air so chase, - tells about the behavior of bumblebees Head of the Laboratory Svetlana Giguere.
- In general, the work you have dangerous? bite frequently? - I ask just a small team.
- Yes, bumblebees jump, pounce, sting ... and it happens quite often. If you are actively working with the tribe, then a day to 10 times can bite, - says a leading laboratory technologist Elena Gorelik. - A bumble bite harder than bees. We suffer, hurt, hurt. But you ought to work!