The most "Russian" of the state of the world
According to various estimates, the Russian-speaking diaspora in the world has from 25 to 30 million people. But just count the number of Russian, it is very difficult to live in different countries, because it is unclear the definition of "Russian".
When we talk about the Russian diaspora, involuntarily return to the rhetorical question - who is a Russian: or is it only the Russians, or they are joined by citizens of former Soviet republics, or in their number also includes the descendants of immigrants from the Russian Empire?
If a Russian abroad reckon only people from the Russian Federation, the question will arise no less, since their number will fall by representatives of numerous nationalities living in Russia.
Using the term "Russian" as an ethnonym we are faced with one hand with the problem of national identity, and on the other - the integration and assimilation. For example, today's a descendant of immigrants from the Russian Empire living in France can feel Russian, and born in a family of immigrants of the 1980s, by contrast, would call a full-fledged French.
Given the vagueness of the term "Russian diaspora" and not yet well-established concept of "Russian community" is often used another phrase - "Russian-speaking diaspora," which include those for whom the Russian language is a unifying element. However, even here not without controversial moments. For example, as of 2008 about his Russian origin said about 3 million. US residents, but the Russian is the mother tongue for only 706 thousand. Americans.
Russian-speaking diaspora in Germany is considered the biggest in Europe. Given the variety of data on the average it is 3, 7 million people, most of whom -. Russian Germans. The family arrived in Germany 15-20 years ago, the Russian language is still a family, even though some of the immigrants used a cross between Russian and German, and few are fluent in German. It is interesting that there are cases where immigrants have already started using the German language, once again returned to the more familiar Russian speech.
It is now in every major city in Germany Russian shops are open, restaurants, travel agencies, there is even a Russian-speaking lawyers' offices and medical facilities. The largest Russian communities are concentrated in Berlin, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Frankfurt. However, the largest concentration of Russian-speaking population in the state of Baden-Württemberg.
The largest Russian Diaspora in South America is located in Argentina. According to unofficial data its number reaches 300 thousand. People, of which about 100 thousand. In varying degrees, speak Russian.
Historians There are 5 waves of emigration from Russia to Argentina. If the first one was "Jewish", the second - "German", the last three are called "Russian". Wave "of Russian emigration" coincided with the critical moments of Russian history - the 1905 revolution, civil war and restructuring.
At the beginning of the XX century, from Russia to Argentina have left many Cossacks and Old Believers. Their compact settlements still exist. A large colony of Old Believers is in Choele-Choele. Preserving the traditional way of life, the Old Believer families still have an average of 8 children. The largest colony of Cossacks located in the suburbs of Buenos Aires - Shvartsbalde and consists of two settlements. Russian Argentines carefully preserve cultural ties with their historical homeland. For example, in the capital works of Russian Culture Institute. In Argentina, also work stations broadcasting exclusively Russian music - Rachmaninoff, Tchaikovsky and Prokofiev.
According to experts the Russian language in the United States occupies seventh place on prevalence. The Russian-speaking population has grown in the country is uneven: the latest and most powerful wave of emigration to the United States swept the Soviet republics at the turn of 1980-90-ies. If in 1990 the US government totaled about 750 thousand. Russian, then today their number exceeds 3 million. Man. no more than 60 thousand immigrants per year -. Since 1990, the quota was introduced for the citizens of the USSR.
It should be noted that in the United States, "Russian" called all those who have come here from the CIS countries and with different ethnic backgrounds - Russian, Ukrainian, Hebrew, Kazakh. Here, as nowhere else manifested duality situation where ethnic identity and native language represent not the same thing.
The large Russian-speaking diaspora in Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Houston. Still, the majority of immigrants prefer to settle in New York, where pretty much keep in touch with Russian history, tradition and culture.
It is not known how much was now the representatives of the Russian diaspora in Israel, if at the turn of 1980-90-ies, the US government did not convince the Israeli authorities to take the main flow of immigrants from the Soviet Union at home. The Soviet leadership also contributed to this process by simplifying the repatriation of Jews to Israel. For the first two years arrived in Israel some 200 thousand. Immigrants from the Soviet Union, but to the beginning of the XXI century, the number of immigrants from Russia decreased to 20 thousand. Per year.
Today Russian-speaking diaspora in Israel has about 1, 1 million people -. About 15% of the population. This is the second after the Arab minority. Diaspora is represented mainly by Jews - ethnic Russian no more than 70 thousand people in it..
Latvia can be called a country where most Russian accounts per capita -. 620 thousand people, representing about 35% of the total number of inhabitants of the country. Russian-speaking community is also called "diaspora disasters" in Latvia as well as the Russian stayed here after the Soviet collapse. It is interesting that the inhabitants of ancient lands settled in the territory of modern Latvia is still in X-XII centuries, and in 1212 the Russian Compound was founded here. Later, the country is actively moved Believers, fleeing from persecution.
Latvia after the Soviet collapse left about 47 thousand. Russian-speaking population, although the situation quickly stabilized. According to sociological center Latvijas fakti Russian language is now owned by 94, 4% of the population.
Most of the Russian-speaking population in Latvia is concentrated in major cities. For example, nearly half of Riga consider themselves Russian diaspora. Virtually all big business in Latvia is controlled by Russian, not surprisingly, the top ten richest people in Latvia includes six Russian.
Russian in Kazakhstan is mostly descendants of the exiled people XIX - early XX century. The active growth of the Russian population of Kazakhstan began in the period of the Stolypin reforms. By 1926, Russian Kazakskoy ASSR were 19, 7% of the total population.
It is interesting that at the time of the collapse of the USSR, Russian and other Europeans in Kazakhstan was about 6 million people -. More than half of the country's inhabitants. However, until the present time there is a constant outflow of the Russian-speaking population. According to official statistics of the Russian language in the country owned by 84, 4% of the population, but the Russian consider themselves to be about 26% - about 4 million people, which is the largest Russian-speaking community in the world..