What is not shown to tourists at the ruins of Mayan cities
Maya left behind a lot of mysteries that are still hidden in their grand buildings and encrypted in the hundreds of characters. Not all the buildings of the ancient Indians now fully understood. Each year, archaeologists and researchers with the most modern devices are trying to unravel the mysteries that hide behind the walls of temples of the Maya or buried in the depths of their sacred cenotes and caves.
1. El Castillo, Chichen Itza
This famous pyramid for the first time captured on film in 1880, almost completely hidden by jungle. Kukulkana consisted of 9 platforms and ladders 4, the total number of steps which corresponds to the number of days in the year.
In the days of autumn and spring equinox to 17 hours can be observed creeping shadow of a snake on a stone balustrade of the pyramid, and in March, the shadow moves up, and in September - down. The illusion lasts for 3 hours and attracts thousands of tourists who come to see this unique phenomenon.
Another mystery of the ancient Mayan structures hiding inside. If you remove the top layer of stones, it is possible to detect a smaller pyramid, and in it - yet a third, the smallest, with a secret location. More recently, scientists as a result of soil studies elektrotomograficheskogo discovered an underground lake at a depth of 20 m under the foundation of the pyramid, which may be similar to one of the sacred Mayan cenotes. Archaeologists suggest that the lake can erode the soil, leading to the destruction of the pyramid in the near future.
The pyramid also serves as a resonator. When people on the stairs, then inside the building there were sounds like the screams of the sacred quetzal bird, which is found in the forests and revered the Maya people. But after an accident with a tourist who fell down the stairs in 2006, the pyramid was closed to the public. Today it can be admired only from the outside.
2. Balankanche Caves
A place that is typically not included in the classic tourist route of Chichen Itza, but striking in its mystery is not less than the pyramids - it Balankanche cave. They are located just 3 km from the Mayan temple complexes. The name translates as "the Holy Throne of the Jaguar", where the ancient Indians held their religious rituals than 3 thousand. Years ago.
In 1959, the Indian watchman Chichen Itza Jose Humberto Gomez found immured passage in one of the branches of the cave. Behind him was the Mayan sanctuary, which houses the Altar of the Jaguar and many ancient artifacts.
One of the most famous buildings in the cave - a room of the World Tree. On the three-dimensional model can be seen all the grotto with the huge limestone pillars in the center, which symbolizes the tree of the Maya - a kind of axis of the world, connecting underground and heavenly worlds.
3. Cenote Ik-Kil
On the way back from Chichen Itza bus with tourists usually stops at the Sacred Cenote Maya Ik-Kil, which the ancient Indians used as a place for sacrifices.
At a depth of 40 meters, archaeologists found human bones and jewelry of the ancient Maya, and today you can see dozens of tourists floating calmly.
4. The pyramid of El Castillo, Koba
If you do not think his trip to the Mayan ruins without having to climb on one of the dozens of pyramids and make a spectacular frame, the ancient city of Coba you exactly like it should. There is a 42-meter pyramid El Castillo, in which the top you can climb the 120 very steep steps.
If you are able to climb, you will see a magnificent panorama of the ancient Mayan city and will be able to look into a small room with a ritual altar where once the Indians made sacrifices.
5. The ancient city of Tulum
The only Mayan city built on the shores of the Caribbean Sea, located on a 12-meter cliffs of the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. Tulum was formerly known under the name itself, meaning "dawn city." Unlike other ancient cities of the Maya, Tulum was surrounded by an impregnable wall, protects against attacks of nomadic peoples from the north.
In addition to historical monuments tourists beckon here many kilometers of white beaches with clear turquoise waters and great weather all year round.
6. The Pyramid of the Magician, Uxmal
The dominant feature of the ancient city of Uxmal is a 40-meter-high Pyramid of the Magician, another name - "Castle dwarf". In fact, this is not a pyramid, and as many as 5, which were built on each other for centuries. According to ancient legend, the Mayan pyramid erected magician Itzamna in one night, and then became the ruler of this place.
7. The Temple of Inscriptions, Palenque
The temple was built over the tomb of the former ruler of the area and is decorated in 617 characters, some of which today have not deciphered. At the very top of the pyramid is the building with three rooms, one of which in 1949 was discovered a hidden tunnel leading to the tomb of Pakal with ancient relics and treasures.
Inside the tomb tourists are not allowed, but an exact copy of the reconstructed premises of the National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico.
8. The Mayan City Yashchilan
The ruins of the city Yashchilan located just 4 hours drive from Palenque, on the border with Guatemala, in the heart of the jungle. Until recently, within a radius of 150 km from the city it was not paved highways. It could only be reached by small plane, but in 1990 the Mexican government to build roads and improve access of tourists to this unique place. Here you can explore 50 ancient buildings, explore a collection of sculptures and try on their own to decipher mysterious hieroglyphs on them.
9. Bonampak Murals
Another ancient town, which is located near the Yashchilan, was accidentally discovered in 1946 by American photographer Giles heel. "Bonampak" in the Mayan language means "Painted Wall" that may have given the city its present name. Today this place is known worldwide for its ancient murals in one of the temples of the complex. They depict the Mayan rulers, dancing people, musicians, war scenes, as well as acts of sacrifice.
10. Temple of the Great Jaguar, Tikal
The city of ancient Indians was discovered in 1848, and the sealed entrance to the grave of one of the rulers of Tikal were able to find only in 1962 in the Temple of the Great Jaguar. Archaeologists entered the tomb through the roof of the temple of secret tunnel. There, researchers found the skins of jaguars, pearl jewelry, including necklace weighing 4 kg body ruler.
To celebrate the end of the world according to the Mayan calendar, December 21, 2012 the descendants of the Indians had a fire ceremony in front of the temple in the town square, which was visited by more than 3 thousand. Man.
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