The most famous arson that changed history
With the fire started Nazi dictatorship in Germany. Fire helped the Russian to win the war against the French in 1812. Arson used as a means of combating the enemy and for political purposes. History knows of at least 5 when fires provided vniyanie the course of history, or were desperate attempt to change things.
The burning of Moscow in 1812, which became fatal for the brilliant French commander
Moscow during Napoleon's attack consisted of 270 thousand inhabitants, it was an important promise to the French conquest and simply beautiful city. After losing the battle of Borodino, the Russian could defend Moscow. But left it to the enemy, allowing him to enter, look around and feel the triumph of an easy victory. Only during the day Napoleon could save a triumphant mood, looking forward to the success of peace negotiations with the Russian Tsar Alexander on his own terms.
But on September 15 in the deserted city started the first fires, which the French emperor did not attach special significance. But the fire continued, the flames covered more buildings - it became clear that this was the work of saboteurs Russian-mongers. They become hard to seek out and executed, leaving the body in the area to deter others.
On the night of September 16, the sky over Moscow was covered by a bright glow from the fires, which seamlessly covers all the new buildings and the French inspired confusion. Napoleon, who was not aware of military defeats, was puzzled by "stupidity and barbarism" of the Moscow governor Rostopchin, ordered the burning of Moscow. And also lamented the "brutality of the population", because of which failed to realize the ambitions of the brilliant French commander. The French want to stop the flames, but it was not under force - the spread of fire contributed to the strong wind, and in addition it was effectively impossible to extinguish, as governor prudently evacuated from fire hydrants.
Napoleon decided to leave Moscow in a month, having made several unsuccessful attempts to report to the Emperor Alexander of peaceful intentions. Left unanswered, in a perceived lack of provisions, warm clothing and comfortable rooms for the quartering of troops, the French commander was forced to leave Moscow with the arrival of the first frost.
May fires in St. Petersburg, arranged nihilists
In 1862, extensive fires took place in St. Petersburg. They were committed by representatives of the new trend - nihilism, which sought to change the political system of Russia - namely, to remove the monarch and establish a republic. And also to provide hard-working people to a decent life, to which the abolition of serfdom in practice, not led.
Fire preceded the distribution of leaflets among the intelligentsia, leaflets calling for the punishment of the Emperor and all his successors, the only way you can save the modern man of the "terrible and destructive position."
Tension and anxiety soared in society. One part was waiting for the start of the revolution, the main force which had to be a nihilist students. Another part of the society are afraid of bloodshed, chaos and family changes.
In such a nervous atmosphere horror and anticipation of changes fires started. From 16 to 28 May 1862 burned Apraksin yard, little market, houses on the Fontanka and many other facilities right in the heart of the capital. Residents were not inactive, searched 300 student activists, on which were made responsible for the fire, panic and "inciting hostility to the government." The episode ended with the arrest of the most influential revolutionary and socialist theorist - writer NG Chernyshevsky. During his imprisonment in the Peter and Paul Fortress "dangerous agitator" I wrote the novel "What to do?", Which has become extremely popular among young people who changed the minds of Russians and brought the socialist revolution.
In St. Petersburg fires in 1862 burned the remnants of feudalism, war and multiplied sparks extremist young people with power.
The burning of the Reichstag was crucial for German society in 1933
A major fire of the Reichstag in 1933, was executed for organizing communist Marinus van der Lubbe, was a landmark event in the history of Germany. This episode was the reason for declaring a state of emergency and the start of Hitler's dictatorship. We recognize the desirability of such innovations as the abolition of habeas corpus, and the confidentiality of correspondence, prohibition of assembly, severe restrictions of freedom of speech. Arson was the trigger for a violent struggle with dissent - the Nazis arrested more than 10,000 opponents - politicians, journalists, and representatives of other sectors of society. Police ranks were replenished by "auxiliary" units, there are 30 thousand employees who retrained in the detention order of stormtroopers.
From the moment when Hitler declared guilty (without waiting for the completion of the investigation and judgment), disagreed with Nazi ideology could detain without complying with the legal procedures, the torture and beatings. Totalitarian regime existed in Germany until May 1945.
Communist Lubbe radically minded and mentally unstable, was indeed implicated in the arson, but all the credit for the big fire he was awarded unfairly. Provocation Nazis prepared, informed about plans communist - he liked to drink and made no secret of his attitude to the political situation and intentions. There is a theory that the storm troopers under the command of Gruppenführer Karl Ernst entered the basement of the Reichstag building at a set time and arson carried much more efficiently than said Lubbe. Officially set Ernst failed involvement, since he soon died (in 1934, during the "Night of the Long Knives"). But it is to this version leaning editors Spiegel, which conducted its own investigation. And Marinus van der Lubbe was posthumously acquitted in the law courts of misconduct during the Nazi dictatorship.
Diversantka Zoe Kosmodemyanskaya - suited fires in German-occupied towns
Organize arson and destroying towns - such task was before the military intelligence officer Zoe Kosmodemyanskoy. In November 1941, when the Nazis seized intense Soviet territory, the command sets the task to commit sabotage in the occupied territories to organize arson.
Diversantka Kosmodemyanskaya managed to successfully complete a first job, set fire to several houses near Moscow. The second attempt was fatal - Zoe captured by the Germans. Hero of the Soviet Union (it was the first woman to be awarded the highest award in the Great Patriotic War) she received for resistance to interrogation during torture - no one has given and not even his name said, posing as Tanya.
The stadium in Zagreb communists burned to the ground
In 1941, the subversive groups desperately worked against the Nazis in Yugoslavia. In the city of Zagreb (Croatia) Red Partisans led by Kreso Rakic advance prepared a lot of explosives, set fire to the stadium. Previous attempts at sabotage have failed so to this event prepared very carefully.
Burnt stadium inspired many among the local population, dissatisfied with the Nazi government. Guerrilla movement began to actively replenished by volunteers. Rakic Kreso in 1952 was posthumously awarded the title of People's Hero of Yugoslavia.