Amazing psychological techniques
"Romeo and Juliet effect"
Increasing the appeal of two people for each other, resulting from attempts of their parents or other separate them.
"The effect of eyewitnesses"
The phenomenon, which consists in the fact that when you need help, the more people there are, the less likely that someone will help them. Previously, it was viewed as a sign of the dehumanization that occurs in an urban environment. It is now known that this effect is common to all. Essentially, the more people are around, the more likely that each of them thinks that someone else will help - hence, no one helps.
"The effect is difficult to achieve"
In social psychology - a phenomenon that consists in the fact that the people in the election of their social elections, more desirable than those who are more available. It's a subtle effect. Many people who are acting in the manner of "elusive", as it were, unnoticed simply dared myself to other people, reducing their social desirability.
(Pygmalion effect) The term EP taken from the play by Bernard Shaw Sangiorgi. It is used as a synonym of self-fulfilling prophecy. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson first used this concept in his book, which describes the impact of teachers' expectations for students behavior. The original study consisted of manipulating the expectations of teachers and evaluation of their effects on the IQ of schoolchildren. 20% of randomly selected schoolchildren from 18 different classes teachers described as having an unusually high potential learning achievements. Pupils lower grades, to which teachers high expectations have been formed, have found a significant increase in overall performance IQ and the ability to reason (reasoning IQ) in comparison with others. Students in the school.
"The effect Zeigarnik"
(Engl Zeigarnik effect.) - mnemonic effect consisting in the dependence of the efficiency of memorizing material (action) on the degree of completeness of action. Named after opening it in 1927 student Lewin - Zeigarnik. The essence of the phenomenon lies in the fact that people are more memorable action, which remained unfinished. This is due to the tension that arises at the beginning of each action, but does not receive a discharge if the action has not ended. preferential retention effect of involuntary memory interrupted, unfinished activities used in teaching and the arts.
Its essence lies in the fact that if a person in a certain situation makes a positive impression, there is an unconscious "attribution" to him other positive qualities, if they had not subsequently appear. In the event of a negative impression, an attempt is made visible only in man is poor, not noticing the full palette of personal characteristics. Among the students a well known myth: "first student works on record book, and then she looked at him." The fact is that doing well in the semester, and carefully preparing for the exams of the students get only excellent marks in 1-2 semesters. Subsequently, some of them, for various reasons, have become less and engage in examinations are not always answered all the questions. But the teacher has acted "halo effect" and he tried to "pull" the student's answer to "excellent."
"The effect of the audience"
(Zajonc effect, the effect of facilitation) - influence of extraneous presence in human behavior. This effect must be taken into account in, for example, psychological research: the audience the effect can be considered as one of the threats to internal validity. examples:
• The man is trying to show itself in the best light in front of a woman (or vice versa)
• In the presence of extraneous people can experience strong emotions, excited, embarrassed, and so on. D.
• The behavior and thoughts of a man alone with himself and the company often differ dramatically.