History of the Soviet Tu-104
• The history of the Soviet Tu-104
In June 1955 a Moscow airfield in Zhukovsky flew the plane experienced "104" development Tupolev. Began factory testing machine, which by the fall of that year, will become a jet airliner Tu-104 - the third in the world, the second put into operation and the first in the Soviet Union.
The very theme of "104th" moved off the ground only after Stalin's death, although the proposal for a passenger jet fleet repeatedly put forward and with him. But the leader, with his usual frugality and tendency to repeated reassurance inexorably "notch" such ideas. The country has just overcome the destruction of the war, and could not afford substantial "non-core" expenses, and jet passenger aircraft in the early 50s still was not an issue of prime necessity for the Soviet economy.
Among the students of railroad common joke: "Soviet cars are not designed to carry passengers, they adapted to it." When creating the first Soviet jet airliner Tupolev took advantage of a similar principle, but seriously and competently. The basis was taken successful bomber Tu-16 (aircraft "104" even one time wore the index of the Tu-16P - "Passenger") in order to gain time and resources to working out a common design.
Thus facilitates the task of training and flight-technical personnel, economy and ground operational and maintenance equipment.
As one of the arguments in favor of such aircraft, Tupolev brought opportunity fly at high altitude, "above the weather" - screw passenger aircraft, which had a low ceiling, mercilessly suffered from turbulence. But that is where the first jet airliner watched for new, as yet unknown danger.
When it comes to passenger aircraft, the first thing that starts to seriously disturb potential passengers - reliability. Who in the USSR did not hear a black song, "Tu-104 - the fastest aircraft: two minutes to the grave dovezot"? For all its offensive, it is in some ways reflects the harsh reality. The plane was made in a hurry. The accident of the new machine exceeded reasonable - by today's standards - indicators. For the entire history of serious accidents suffered 37 cars - 18% of the total issued. In this case, it should be noted that the "104th" behaved in flight somewhere as a decent than his English competitor, "Komet" company "De Havilland" (23% of lost cars), who had an unhealthy habit to fall apart in the air due to fatigue loads in the fuselage designed by carelessly.
The first Tu-104 flew in early November 1955. Thus, the development took quite a bit of time. During this flight was not without problems: during the flight the aircraft suddenly bouncing up, then at some time lost control of the car. This state of the pilots called "pickup". could not determine the cause of this phenomenon. Despite this, the aircraft operation was continued, and the test continued.
The Tu-104 is so fell on Khrushchev soul, that he even decided to fly it to the UK in 1956. Since the problem could not be resolved with the aircraft, it was possible to persuade to abandon this mission. But it was necessary to demonstrate to the world the successes of Soviet aircraft. Therefore, according to Khrushchev's orders, the Tu-104 driven in the British capital.
The arrival of a Soviet airliner, in the opinion of the British press, has produced an effect comparable to a UFO landing. The next day, he flew to London a second instance of the TU-104, with another room. The British newspapers reported that it was one and the same plane, and "Russian priests" "repainted the numbers on his experimental airplane." "Russian priests" - a Russian pilots, dressed all in black. Chief designer AN Tupolev was offended, and, first of all, ordered to allocate funds to pilots that were dressed in something fashionable and not black, and the next day - March 25, 1956 to send to London just three TU-104 at the same time, which it was done.
It was a triumph of the Soviet Union - because at that moment more than any other country in the world operating jet passenger aircraft was not.
The first regular flight of the Tu-104 made September 15, 1956. And in 1958, the black stripe.
As subsequent events showed, the problem with a "pick up" were not resolved. In August 1958, Tu-104, lost control, crashed, killing 64 people. Tupolev Designer denies that there are any whatever the problem, the accident occurred due to the fault of the crew. There is a version that the plane did not have enough fuel. But after a while and the second Tu-104 crashed, went into a tailspin and crashed into the ground.
And two months later - exactly the same situation for Canas.
October 7, 1958 the new Tu-104A with tail number CCCP-42362, operated by a crew experienced pilots Harold Kuznetsova performing flight Beijing-Omsk-Moscow. flight height was 12 kilometers. Inside, there were mostly foreign citizens - the delegation of Chinese and North Korean Komsomol activists.
Weather in Moscow was bad in the alternate aerodrome bitter - also, and after passing Kazan manager ordered to turn around and follow in a suitable landing Sverdlovsk. During a turn at an altitude of 10,000 meters of aircraft likely to fall into the zone of strong turbulence and there was a "pick-up" - spontaneous, uncontrolled crew increase the pitch angle. Suddenly, the plane sharply bounced up, and with such force that it is such a huge machine of shot up to two kilometers, went to tier up, lost speed, fell on the wing and went into a tailspin.
In the arisen situation the crew did everything possible to save the plane. But the lack of progress of the elevator car is not allowed to withdraw from the deadly regime. Harold Kuznetsov, knowing that perhaps the story is repeated Birobidzhan, ordered radio operator to broadcast his words to the ground.
crew commander Harold Kuznetsov and copilot Anton Artemiev tried to align the aircraft to stop taking the wheel itself. But it did not help. Then the plane went down sharply, ignoring management. Thus, the plane has entered into a steep peak unmanageable. At supersonic speed, almost vertically, the plane rushed to the ground.
This crew made nearly impossible: Commander Harold Kuznetsov two minutes of falling from a height of 13 kilometers had to broadcast the behavior of the machine. Communication worked almost until the moment of impact with the ground. The last words of the commander were: "Good-bye. We are perishing. " The plane crashed in Vurnary Chuvashia area, a few dozen meters from the railway line Moscow-Kazan-Sverdlovsk, near the village of Bulatov. Killing 65 passengers and 9 crew members.
According to the results of the work of the State Commission, the accident did not last more than two minutes.
Send Kuznetsov information was of great value, since all the previous incidents have remained unsolved. None of the investigations carried out by specialists of the Main Control GVF, Air Force, National Research Institute, as well as of the Tupolev Design Bureau has failed to shed light on what really happened. many assumptions have been put forward: a technical failure, defects in design, bad weather conditions, crew error.
All the blame, of course, fell on the pilot's head, since no one doubted the technical characteristics of the aircraft. But Kuznetsov sent information to dot the "I". Commission concluded from the information received that the ship was in a huge upward airflow. None of the designers could not even imagine that this is possible at a height of more than 9 kilometers, since the simple piston machine could go up at a much lower height. Therefore, the phenomenon of turbulence, it was considered a trifle. Until the tragedy occurred.
Kuznetsova crew was at the center of the vertical air flow. Later, during the flight of playing, designers failed to determine its parameters: width of the air flow was about 2 kilometers length - about 13, a thickness - of about 6 kilometers. Thus its rate approaching 300 kilometers per hour.
It was necessary to urgently find a way to combat the dangerous phenomenon of nature. As a result, the limit flight altitude was reduced, the modernization of the structure itself, have developed new methods of centering machines, but still the problem completely and have not decided. High accident rate remained at the same level, but that was the cause - whether the errors in the design, or unavailability of pilots - it was difficult to determine.
transmits information enough to find and fix the problem. We have changed the rules of the plane alignment, modified stabilizer installation angle and finalized elevator. There was also reduced the maximum altitude. The tendency of the aircraft to "pick up" has been greatly reduced.
After that, the Tu-104 has three decades of passengers carried, and although no accidents could not have done (because aircraft were built and flew about 200) - their causes were already different. Tu-104 became for a long time, the main Aeroflot passenger plane, for example, in 1960 at the TU 104 was carried out one-third of passenger air transportation in the USSR. For 23 years of operation of the fleet of Tu-104 has transported about 100 million passengers, spent in the air 2 million flight hours and performing more than 600 000 flights.
Much credit for this belongs to Harold Kuznetsov and his crew. Here are their names:
Harold D. Kuznetsov - KBC instructor
Anton Artyomov Filimonovich - KBC
Igor Rogozin - copilot
Mumrienko Eugene A. - navigator
Veselov Ivan Vladimirovich - mechanic
Alexander Fedorov - radio operator
Smolensk Maya Filip - steward translator
Goryushina Tatiana B. - steward
Maklakova Albina - steward
It is no wonder that the aircraft has gained not a good reputation. In 1960, the Tu-104 plane was taken out of production, and it took place at the time of turboprop airliners IL-18. And as for the Tu-104 acceleration needed a long strip, then it is used for domestic flights are not frequent.
There was a need for new passenger aircraft. Tupolev decided not to deviate from the intended path. As a result, the first modification of the Tu-104 were established - Tu-124, which is also characterized by a high accident rate. Therefore, it was created another option - the Tu-134. This aircraft has been more successful, so from the beginning of operation in 1967, he still performs flights on domestic routes. It was only in 1972 there was the first jet airliner Tu-154, which has not been altered from the war machine, and was originally designed as a passenger. This is one of their favorite domestic aircraft experienced pilots.
"Aeroflot" removed the last Tu-104 with a regular airlines only in 1979. But by the time the plane is firmly caught in the Air Force - it was used for training pilots of naval missile, as a flying laboratory, for meteorological research and how-scale aircraft. Finally flights "104" was stopped only at the beginning of 1981, after a military airfield near Leningrad broke overloaded car, which belonged to the Soviet Navy. It is almost completely lost command of the Pacific Fleet - 52 people, including 17 admirals and generals, including the commander of the Navy Vice Admiral Emil Spiridonov, in possession of and the number of the ill-fated car.
Such experience has led domestic designers to consider new aerodynamic shape, which could withstand the air flow.
Officially last flight of the Tu-104 was held in November 1986. But some people say that at the end of the 80s saw the "104th" on the platforms of regional airports, and even in flight. The son of a soldier and his grandfather Soviet jet airliners did not want to retire, remaining a sort of a good ghost in the impoverished but cozy lived-in castle of the domestic civil aviation.
At Moscow, on the Kiev highway, at the turn to the airport Vnukovo was met Tu-104B, which stands on a high pedestal. As it turned out, this plane is set in 2006, before it was in Vnukovo another Tu-104B, which is someone's stupid orders cut in 2005. Board number of machines is not real, the USSR-L5412 number wore the first Tu-104, the first flight with passengers.