Daniel Zabolotny: "black death" struggle
• Daniel Zabolotny: fight with the "black death"
Daniel Zabolotny went down in history as one of the founders of modern epidemiology, which could explain the cause of the plague foci, and to find the means of their localization. In the fight against epidemics, he constantly risked his life. As he put it, he wanted to "drive a plague in a tight corner, where she dies under a storm of applause all over the world," and he did it.
Danylo zabolotny was born in 1866 in Ukraine, in the village of Chebotarka (now - Zabolotnov) Vinnitsa region into a peasant family. He lost his father early and was educated thanks to relatives who have been brought up. He first studied at the Novorossiysk (now Odessa) University and worked at the Odessa bacteriological station and then entered the Medical Faculty of the University of Kiev, which has been studying the center of bacteriology and epidemiology.
After graduation Zabolotniy worked in Kamenetz-Podolsk, where he organized a bacteriological laboratory. At that time, he studied the epidemics of diphtheria, cholera and typhoid fever, and in search of serum against cholera has decided to carry out an experiment on himself. He drank a live cholera culture and experienced the action of serum. The result justified his expectations and spared his life: the scientist laid the foundation for oral immunization, proving that cholera can be saved by the introduction of the vaccine. Since protective vaccination against cholera have been widely used in practice.
At the end of the XIX century. a scientist at the invitation of Ilya Mechnikov worked at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, was awarded the French Legion of Honor. Then participated in expeditions to study the plague in India, Arabia, Persia, Mongolia, etc. The causative agent of plague was discovered in 1894 -.. Scientists have proved that in the port cities of the plague-infected rats are entered, penetrating to seagoing vessels. But the question remained open as to why the plague periodically erupts in certain foci, including in the steppe areas.
Daniil Zabolotny with his students managed to find the cause of the "plague foci": it is established that they are natural, and that distributors are becoming wild rodents - squirrels, marmots, gerbils, etc. The scientist has organized anti-plague laboratory in the steppe and desert zones.. to localize foci of plague. Because of his work it had established the principle of the geographical distribution of plague in the world.
Medical History Museum in Kiev. Professor D. Zabolotny at work
Ilya Mechnikov once gave Daniel Zabolotny his portrait with the inscription: "Fearless disciple of admiration for his teacher." The scientist did not once risked his life to save someone else's. Once he was infected, she pricked a needle syringe into contact with the patient. Zabolotny well understood than it is threatened, and even wrote farewell letters to loved ones. But time adopted anti-plague serum saved his life.
The house-museum in the village of Daniel Zabolotny Chebotarka (Zabolotnov)
In the early twentieth century. more than 10 years he fought cholera in Scotland, Portugal, Russia and Manchuria. When in 1918 the epidemic was raging in Petersburg, hitting a daily basis up to 700 people, Zabolotniy working in city hospitals. He wrote about this period: "It was especially difficult to use mass immunization safety. The main obstacle was the lack of laboratory glassware and culture media for the preparation of vaccines. We had to search for and confiscate agar in pastry, use cologne bottles as dishes, invent appliances for heating thermostats, instead of vials and test tubes to use a bottle, but still prepare the necessary amount of vaccine and let her in the case. "
The wife Lyudmila Zabolotnogo Radetskaya with foster children, 1910s.
Zabolotnogo only son died early, and the scientist has found solace in helping orphans. He fathered 13 children and took care of their education. Zabolotny has published more than 200 scientific studies on the plague and cholera. His contribution to science has been recognized worldwide. Name Zabolotnogo named Institute of Microbiology and Virology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, as well as streets in Kiev and Odessa.
Daniel Zabolotny House Museum in the village Chebotarka (Zabolotnov)