How did the first submarines
February 11, 1720 the Russian inventor Yefim Nikonov began to build a "hidden boat", which became the first Russian submarine.
Since that day, the submarine have changed a lot, but in each of the categories has always been the first submarine.
The first boat which has carried out a torpedo attack
The first attempt to attack the enemy torpedoes was undertaken during the Russian-Japanese war submarine "Som" April 29, 1905 70 miles from Vladivostok. The boat was spotted by two Japanese destroyers, under fire sank quickly and attempted to go on the attack. However, the fog and high speed of enemy ships are not allowed to carry a torpedo launch. But the mere presence in the Russian navy submarine served as a good deterrent for the Japanese fleet in relation to the attack on Vladivostok. During the First World War, "Catfish" by rail has been relocated to the Baltic Sea where the submarine was killed in 1916 in a collision with a Swedish steamer.
The first nuclear submarine, surface ship destroyed the
First nuclear submarine to sink an enemy ship with torpedoes is a British boat Conqueror, which is May 2, 1982 during the Falklands conflict, attacked a group of Argentine ships. The main purpose of the second largest Argentine ship was chosen - the cruiser "General Belgrano" (the former American "Phoenix", built in 1938). And, although the Argentine fleet was outside the declared itself as the UK's 200-mile zone of conflict, Conqueror received a personal order of Margaret Thatcher's attack cruiser. Of the three released two torpedoes hit the "General Belgrano" and 20 minutes later the cruiser sank, taking with them 328 members of the crew. Ironically, the ship survived Pearl Harbor in 1941 and the Second World War, died 40 years later from the torpedoes former ally.
The first nuclear submarine
January 21, 1954 the first nuclear-powered submarine in the world "Nautilus" in the United States was launched, having a large in those days cruising and is able to make long transitions to an underwater position. The boat had a displacement of 4222 tons, speed - 23 knots. Armament consisted of six torpedo tubes. "Nautilus" belongs to the championship in the conquest of the North Pole in 1958, because this boat is the first ship to have reached the pole. Although it should be noted that the submarine service was held is far from ideal and has been linked with a number of accidents and incidents. March 3, 1980 "Nautilus" was expelled from the Navy and five years later turned into a museum submarine of the US Navy.
The most curious case of the sinking of the submarine
The most curious case of the submarine death was recorded September 2, 1917, when the German submarine U-28 was sunk by the British ... truck. U-28 detained in the North Cape in the Barents Sea, English transport Olive Branch, en route to Arkhangelsk with a cargo of ammunition and equipment and enabling the crew to transfer to the boat, opened artillery fire on Transport. One of the shells caused an explosion of ammunition were on board. The blast one of the trucks was dropped from the upper deck and flying a considerable distance, landed just in the U-28, which sank in a few minutes. How plausible this story is hard to say ... Oh it is known only from the words of Olive Branch crew, who refused a German submarine in the rescue and it is likely that this story is only part of the British fleet legends.
The first performance of
The most effective submarine in the military history of the number killed in the goals began during the First World War German submarine U-35, which operated in the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast to the North Sea to the Mediterranean, German submarines could operate almost with impunity, killing for a hike a few dozen of transport and merchant ships of the Entente. Only U-35, made 19 trips, 226 sank 10 ships and damaged. The overwhelming number of victims of German U-boats were destroyed by artillery prize rightly or disruptive patrons.
The first domestic diesel submarine
The experience of the Russian-Japanese war showed that gasoline engines are the submarine unreliable and flammable. Therefore, shortly before the outbreak of the First World War, the fleets of leading world powers begin to replenish diesel submarines. In Russia, the idea of equipping diesel submarines belonged to Major-General Professor Ivan Grigorievich Bubnov. Built on his project "Lamprey" was successfully tested and was the inspiration for a series of more advanced diesel submarines. During the First World War, "Lamprey" were on patrol duty on the central mine-artillery positions, however, I did not have the wins. During the Civil War, the boat was transferred to the Caspian Sea, which remained until the end of his service in 1926.
The first all-metal submarine
The first all-metal submarine was built in Russia in 1834, Schilder's project engineer. The boat was driven by muscular force of the crew, and it was not high speed. Armament consisted of galvanic mines and plants with incendiary rockets. Unfortunately, distinguished by the originality of the project has not received the necessary support and further development, and the creator of boat later died in the Crimean War at the siege Russian troops Silistra.