Jacques-Yves Cousteau to three months the team has lived and worked on the ocean floor
Jacques-Yves Cousteau was definitely a genius. At first, he gave the world scuba, then devoted his life to the sea and brought the study of the oceans to the next level. But it was not enough just to swim in the seas and shoot at the camera marine life. He wanted to change the world and influence the history of human civilization. In 1962, Cousteau launched a fantastic project: his team a total of three months lived in the houses at the bottom of the ocean. It was akin to space flight - so awesome and the country will receive all the adventure.
, Jacques-Yves Cousteau wants to resettle humanity under water
Jacques-Yves Cousteau - the inventor of ocean explorer and author of many excellent documentaries. During the Second World Cousteau participated in the French Resistance, he led subversion and received a top award of France, the Legion of Honor.
His most important invention, scuba, he created in 1943 with Emil Gagnan specifically for marine sabotage. When the war ended, the discovery has brought him a lot of money, so he got the opportunity to invest in something quite extravagant.
The original ConShelf project.
In 1950, Jacques-Yves buys a decommissioned vessel "Calypso" and rebuilds it under the sea lab. From that moment until his death in 1997, Cousteau's life turns into one great pilgrimage to the waters of the ocean. They will wait for the glory, honor, and three "Oscar" for the great (without jokes) documentaries. But we want to tell you is not quite it. In the life of Jacques-Yves and his team was the episode when they were so ambitious that took up the incredible and fantastic at the time the venture.
ConShelf I Project - the first underwater house in the history of
Installation ConShelf I.
First time to settle and survive on the seabed failed in 1962, ie shortly after Gagarin's flight. It is not difficult to guess that in the background of the flight into space, and the idea did not get half the attention it deserved. Nevertheless, it was unexpected for all the success. Not far from the French Marseille's first-ever real "underwater house" was located in the Mediterranean Sea. Its dimensions were not so great: in fact it was a metal barrel length of 5 meters and 2, 5 meters in diameter. The design has received tacit nickname "Diogenes" and became a haven for friends Cousteau - Albert Falco (remember that name!) And Claude Wesley.
Inside the submarine home.
Oceanauts lived for a week at a depth of 10 meters. If you think that the pioneers have suffered all this time in the underwater hell, damn it wrong. Claudia and Albert were radio, television, comfortable beds, regular breakfast, lunch and dinner, a library and its constant chatter on the radio with his friends at the "Calypso". In addition, both are 5 hours a day floating in the vicinity of your new home, studying the seabed and ocean dwellers, and then engaged in research work in "Diogenes".
Week on the oceanic base was enough to realize that you can live under water and it is not as difficult as it seemed at first. The experiment called for an immediate continuation.
ConShelf II - the first underwater village
Already in 1963 a new project was launched, which surpassed the previous head. If ConShelf I can be called the first underwater house, the ConShelf II was already present underwater village. Here permanently six people lived and Parrot and was sailing to visit many more crew members of the "Calypso". In general, the atmosphere was like in a normal gay hostel, just outside the window floated barracuda, jellyfish, divers, and to walk "outdoors" had to put a diver equipment.
To carry out a new experiment of the Red Sea shelf was chosen, just off the coast of Sudan. ConShelf II is not a single structure, but a whole complex of four structures. Surprisingly, in order to compile and install everything needed is not so much effort and money: only two of the ship, 20 sailors and five divers.
It was supposed that it will be really full-fledged village with incredible ocean (at the time) gateways, corridors and boats underwater ocean observatories. As a result, it was necessary to do everything much more modest, but even in this form, the results are staggering.
The main building was constructed in the form of a starfish with four "rays" and a large bathroom in the middle. Its placed at a depth of 10 meters where oceanauts can simultaneously enjoy the sunlight and calm to swim for several hours a day without experiencing problems with decompression.
One of the main goals of the experiment was to find out exactly whether the divers will be able to without problems to descend to great depths and safely return to an underwater housing. As expected, it was very real. On the surface glubokovodnikov would wait for death from a sharp ascent, and the bends, but underwater home solves this problem.
Hangar for submarine and hard experiment
In addition to "Sea Star" is located also an air hangar for "diving saucer" - the submarine, which was used by the team Cousteau. Waking up in the morning at a depth of 10 meters below sea level, it was possible to have a coffee, take a trip to a depth of 300 meters, open a dozen unknown species of animals, and by dinner back to eat sandwiches with tuna and share their adventures companions. And all this without leaving the ocean! For the 60-ies of these stories sound like science fiction on the verge of madness.
In addition, there was one more important building. Despite its austerity, "Rocket" was in some ways even more interesting from the point of view of the entire project. This turret was located at a depth of 30 meters and was made in order to find out exactly how divers will carry extremely heavy conditions of work and life underwater.
In contrast to the "Sea Star", there has been no more house, and lock-up: very little space, the constant closeness and high blood pressure, an experimental mixture of helium, nitrogen, and oxygen instead of air, the darkness and sharks around. In general, all to test yourself in this stressful situation. The only thing that pleased two volunteers who have lived here for a week, - helium mixture made their voices squeaky, and funny, and the team members are often called to "rocket" just to chat and to laugh heartily together.
This experiment also proved successful, and everything in it proved to be great: and "Rocket", and scuba divers, and the mixture for breathing. The first thing to do both experimental, sailed back after a terrible week, and the dangers of decompression - smoked a pipe full of tobacco and finally slept.
A simple life of ordinary men on the ocean floor
Jacques-Yves Cousteau smoke on the ocean floor and thinking about how to move more people here from the land.
In contrast to the first astronauts, the first aquanauts not experienced any difficulties in their work. That is, by itself, to live on the ocean floor a month and a few hours a day to work in the tank - not the trivial task. But even the team says that to cope with this mission has been easier than with the duties of an astronaut. Permanent residents of homes were underwater: a biologist, a teacher, a cook, a sports coach, a customs officer and engineer.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau and his team tried to create discoverers not just tolerable, but very comfortable. The daily diet of underwater settlers consisted of fresh seafood and vegetables, as well as canned and baked goods. And even more: they chose their menu, cook calling via video on the "Calypso"!
Ventilation pipes using it possible to maintain a comfortable environment so that the inhabitants of "Sea Star" only did what they were smoking pipes and cigarettes, not forgetting even occasionally drink wine. Oceanauts regularly visited the hairdresser, they daily use artificial sunbathing, so as not to lose the tan and do not suffer from a deficit of UV radiation.
Aquanaut swim around underwater scooter home.
They entertained themselves aquanauts conversations, reading books, playing chess and watching the ocean. In order to warn residents about the problems with the breathing gas in the "Starfish" settled parrot, who also handled the adventure, though sometimes much coughing. However, it is possible that this is due to tobacco smoke. For a month the inhabitants of the underwater village even had their own favorites among fish. For example, they gladly welcomed and fed affectionate barracuda, which is constantly hanging around the house. Fish nicknamed Jules and started to get to know her "in your face".
Aquanauts clean your house from algae.
We have to do it every day. In addition, due to living in such conditions were found out some surprising details. It turned out that because of the increased pressure (and possibly artificial breathing mixtures) wounds on the body overgrown literally overnight, a beard and a mustache almost stop growing. In addition, tobacco consumed much faster, and because smokers had to ask for a lot more cigarettes than expected.
"World Without Sun" - a triumph that earned the Jacques-Yves Cousteau
ConShelf II project presented a real triumph Cousteau and his team. They are not only attracted the world's attention to a new perspective of human development, but also received the "Oscar" for best documentary in 1965. "World Without Sun" - one and half picture, which Cousteau filmed on the experiment course, and it produced a striking effect.
Much of the information about ConShelf II and life in the Red Sea bottom is the easiest way to get from this film. So it is worth a look even for those who do not like documentaries. The more that he shot just awesome: life under water atmosphere fascinates every frame - screenshot ready for the desktop and many of the points I want to reconsider because of how they are aesthetically attractive. The climax of the film - a journey Cousteau and the very Albert Falco on "Saucer" - their little UFO-shaped submarine. They descend to 300 meters in depth, and the Red Sea, to the audience's surprise, found at the bottom of the sea landscapes and life forms that look alien. Here aquanauts faced with a giant six-meter fish, with swarms of crustaceans, running like an antelope, and an orgy of crabs on a few thousand people.
Surfacing Cousteau and Falco completes the whole movie, and it gives a stunning effect: it seems that this is exactly what you have just risen from the seabed after an incredible month of life in the underwater house.
ConShelf III - frustration
After the success ConShelf II project, Jacques-Yves Cousteau was able to continue the development and experimentation. In 1965 it was launched ConShelf III, third and, unfortunately, the last major team experiment in this area. He was even more ambitious, more perfect, more exciting, but still last.
Large dome was placed on the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea between Nice and Monaco, at a depth of 100 meters. Six people (among them the son of Cousteau, Philippe) for three weeks to survive in the underwater house, which was far more autonomous than the previous ones. Along the way, oceanauts third project involved a lot of experiments purely practical nature which should have given a lot of information for oil companies.
ConShelf III in cross section.
Himself Jacques-Yves Cousteau and his team finally worsened the relations with sponsors from the industry. Instead of pointing out the best way to extract oil from the continental shelves, the researchers began to attract public attention to the problems of ecology and the fragility of the balance of life in the ocean. More about the grants for the development of underwater settlements could not dream of.
Underwater house after Cousteau
American Tektite Project.
Of course, in addition to the Cousteau team, the migration of mankind in the ocean and other researchers involved. In total more than a dozen such projects have been launched in the world. But all of them is not so lucky with the world-famous, although many did not have problems with financing.
For example, in the Soviet Union was launched by the so-called "Ichthyander-66" - amateur draft, in which divers enthusiasts have managed to build an underwater housing that has become their home for three days. Follow him "Ichthyander-67" was a much more serious - two weeks stay, design, reminiscent ConShelf II, and experiments with different animals.
Another famous example - three SEALAB experimental project, which was launched in Bermuda in 1964 and renewed in 1965 and 1969. History SEALAB base itself is worthy of a separate article. Interest in underwater homes has already begun to fade, but the authors of the project were able to convince the US government that it will be very useful for space research. For example, this is where the future trained astronaut Scott Carpenter, who experienced the impact of isolation and pressure drops.
SEALAB III gave the scientists a lot of material for thought and a great experience for aquanauts. Unfortunately, it came out all wrong, as we would like the organizers. From the outset, the project pursued the problem occurred accidents and fatal failure came one after another. Ended all this death of one of oceanauts Berry Cannon, who was killed during the emergency repair of the submarine base is not fully elucidated reasons.
In addition to research projects of settlement of the seabed there is at least one more hedonistic. Jules Undersea Lodge, converted from an old submarine base - the only underwater hotel is now functioning. For 30 years he managed to visit about 10 thousand people, many of whom - the couple who decided to diversify their honeymoon. So we can say with certainty that the first thing people just being in an underwater housing, have sex and reproduction in question. It looks promising: at least, the problems with the settlement of the underwater city of the future mankind will not arise.
We can say that the construction of Hydropolis failed, and it began, Jacques-Yves Cousteau - just a senile old man, and the dream of living on the ocean floor is best left to science fiction and video games. But if you look at it from the point of view of an optimist, and projects like ConShelf SEALAB - this is the first, although it is too neat steps. Same Moon man set foot since 1969, but we still we continue to dream of space and are convinced that a couple of decades colonize Mars. Unlike utopia Cousteau only that it is less than we believe, even though it looks like in general, it is even more realistic.