Planes legend Tupolev: war and peace
• Planes legend Tupolev: War and Peace
Experimental Design Bureau Tupolev over 95 years of work has developed more than 300 aircraft. About 50 of them went into production. The most popular are the strategic bombers Tu-160 and Tu-95, the civil aviation legend of the Tu-144, the most massive Soviet passenger aircraft Tu-154 and its modern replacement of Tu-204/2014.
In the suburban town of Zhukovsky flight-located test and development base PSC "Tupolev". There is an airfield "Ramenskoye" with Europe's largest runway 5500 meters long. Every two years takes place in Zhukovsky International Aviation and Space Salon MAKS.
Tu-160. The supersonic strategic bomber-rocket carrier Tu-160 was developed in the Tupolev Design Bureau in the late 1970s. In the classification of the NATO countries known as Blackjack. Russian pilots call it the "White Swan".
The Tu-160 is the heaviest (maximum takeoff weight of 275 tons) and the fastest (up to 2230 km / h), the serial bomber in the world.
bomber with variable geometry wing was conceived as a response to the Soviet project of the American intercontinental bomber B1.
The first flight of the prototype Tu-160 took place at the airfield "Ramenskoye" December 18, 1981.
In the air of the Tu-160 raises four engines NK-32, arranged in pairs on both sides of the fuselage. The power plant of the Tu-160 (total thrust of 100 thousand kg) - the most powerful of all existing aircraft of this class in the world.
Tupolev competitors in the creation of a new strategic bomber Sukhoi Design Bureau and were Myasishcheva. However, the project was eventually entrusted Tupolev: it already had a wealth of experience and a package of solutions, used in the creation of a supersonic airliner Tu-144.
The majority of the Tu-160 now have their own names. Presented at the picture one of the first mass-produced boards named in honor of test pilot, Hero of the Soviet Union Boris Veremeev. It was he who in December 1981 raised to the sky the very first Tu-160.
Today, the Russian Air Force is a dozen Tu-160.
Russian Ministry of Defense expects to order the domestic aviation industry is still about fifty modernized bombers.
Maximum weight of the combat load - 45 tonnes, which exceeds the burden of all the aircraft in its class in the world.
In June 2010, two strategic bombers Tu-160 set a record range - 18 000 km, in flight they spent 23 hours with refueling in the air.
Machinery gather at the Kazan aircraft plant them. Gorbunov.
In 2016, they started to rebuild the key production lines to resume production of modernized Tu-160.
The cockpit. For the first time in history to control heavy jet aircraft was used fighter-type handle rather than a steering wheel for both hands. Crew - 4 people in two double cabins (commander, assistant navigator, navigator-operator). For the comfort of the crew on long flights of here provided bed, a toilet and a system of heating food.
The first combat use of the Tu-160 took place in the Russian operations to Syria in November 2015. Bombers attacked positions of cruise missiles terrorists.
Tu-95. Symbol of the strategic long-range aviation of the Soviet Union during the Cold War. According to NATO classification - "The Bear."
has four engines NK-12. This is the most powerful turboprop (15 000 liters. With.) Engine in the world.
A characteristic feature of the shape of the nose of the Tu-95 - non-retractable rod toplivopriomnika to refuel in the air.
TU-95 served as an effective tool for deterring a potential adversary. The Soviet government ordered Tupolev aircraft that could reach the United States, to reset the bomb and return to base. Range of flight of the first TU-95 modification than 15 000 km and gradually reduced to détente and the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles.
The prototype of the Tu-95 made its first flight 12 November 1952. Series production began in 1955 and continued in Kuibyshev (Samara) until 1992. Russian Air Force balance over 50 Tu-95 bombers.
The crew of the Tu-95 - 9 person (reduced to 7 people in a modification of the Tu-95MS).
engine propeller diameter greater than 5 meters. The mass of each of eight blades - 96 kg.
A part of the system of defensive weapons - aft turret twin 23-mm aircraft cannon. Initially, the Tu-95 was equipped with six guns in modern modifications have left only two tail as close combat with the use of small arms in the modern air war rare.
The length of the Tu-95 and the scope of its wings almost the same - about 50 meters.
Maximum combat load of 15 tonnes (20 tons exceeds Tu-95MS modification).
The crew of the aircraft enters the cabin through the hatch in the niche nose landing gear. The nose gear of the Tu-95 does not have a brake system. Wheel diameter - 1, 1 meter.
Military experts believe that the Tu-95 is far from obsolete. The aircraft has been used successfully in military conflicts (particularly in Syria). Bomber attacks the goal of modern cruise missiles for a few thousand kilometers - outside the kill zone of enemy air defenses.
Tu-144. Pride and pain Tupolev and domestic aviation industry - the Tu-144. The fastest passenger airliner in the world. The aircraft, ahead of not only sound, but also your time.
to accelerate the pace of life in the 60-ies of XX century puzzled problem of aircraft building supersonic long-range airliner. The work was done in the Soviet Union (Tupolev) and in Europe (Franco-British project "Concord"). He won the USSR. The first flight of the Tu-144 took place December 31, 1968, two months ahead of "Concorde".
For the first time in the history of passenger aircraft Tu-144 broke the sound barrier at an altitude of 11 km in June 1969. At twice the speed of sound Tupolev airliner exceeded in May 1970.
Especially for the Tu-144 at the Kuibyshev engine plant turbojet engines NK-144 have been developed. Four such mounting on each liner was allowed him to develop a maximum speed of over 2,400 km / h.
Tu-144 will "Concorde" for more than 150 km / h. The flip side of speed was a significant fuel consumption (on board had to take it up to 100 tons). Above the engine efficiency of its designers worked in subsequent versions. In 1980, the development of the engine NK-144 was discontinued due to collapse of the project.
The design of the Tu-144, the creators used a lot of technical innovations. Changed hijacking tilt cockpit: to improve visibility during takeoff and landing "nose" fell, and in cruise flight was recorded in the same plane with the fuselage.
Retractable canards. "Wings" improves handling nearly 200-ton airliner on takeoff and landing. The front stabilizer with nose dipping quenching rate allowed liner before planting (in the Tu-144 design does not provide flaps and slats).
At the time of the cockpit was equipped with the most modern avionics. The crew of the ship - 4 person (excluding flight attendants).
Helm commander of the fastest passenger aircraft in the history of mankind.
flight engineer panel - a set of tools to manage and control power and fuel systems.
Some elements of the instrument panel of the Tu-144 is emphasized its status as long-range and intercontinental liner. time switches "Moscow Greenwich" and a system of measures, "British-Metric". Ironically, the plane never entered the international airlines. Abroad only got to fly to the demonstration showrooms in Le Bourget. The first of which ended in tragedy. By and unknown reasons Tu-144 crashed June 3, 1973, killing 6 crew members and 8 people on the ground. Several of accidents and disasters, as well as high operating costs led to the closure of the project in 1980.
Designers Tu-144 provided an innovative opportunity to start jet engines in the air. Function is important, because in the cruising aircraft engine thrust manage change.
Total from 1968 to 1984, 16 units of the Tu-144 was built. Preserved only half. Several boards are used as museum exhibits and other stores in different cities of Russia. Photo: Tu-144 on the training airport of Samara National Research University. Queen.
board №77107 installed for training purposes on the territory of the Kazan Aviation Institute.
Modern technology has changed the system of training personnel for the aviation. Photo: Flight Simulator medium-range airliner Tu-204SM.
A full-featured simulator "glass" cockpit. The projection of the image of the board and change the simulator position in three dimensions make it possible to realistically simulate different conditions and regimes of flight, including extreme.
Remote control simulator with fine-tuning of input conditions.
Imitation differences with the board intruder.
Passenger and cargo modifications of aircraft Tu-204 are collected in Ulyanovsk.
"Aviastar" plant is part of the United Aircraft Corporation.
TU-204 family was designed Tupolev in the late 80's and early 90-ies of XX century. Based on the Tu-204 were established about two dozen different modifications. The photo is one of them - the Tu-214.
TU-204 was designed to replace the massive airliner Tu-154. But Russian companies choose foreign-made aircraft. Over half a century of operation (which continues today) Tu-154 became a legend. In the photo: the famous "Fifty dollars" at the entrance of the Novosibirsk airport "Tolmachevo".