Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus

• Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus

In the biography of Christopher Columbus more white spots than reliable facts. His name was surrounded by legends, he remains one of the most enigmatic figures in history. Until recently wrote about him only as a great discoverer, but in recent years an increasing number of studies in which the scientists propose to look at it from the other side. Thus, the American historian Howard Zinn sure: the emergence of the New World of European settlers marked the beginning of mass colonization, slavery and extermination of indigenous peoples.

Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus

T. Puebla. The first landing of Christopher Columbus in the New World, 1862Cvedeniya about when and how much Columbus before the start of the great journeys, not fixed. Some researchers believe that the sailor carefully concealed some facts of his biography, as in the past was a robber and a slaver. He really sailed to the coast of West Africa, where the slave trade was actively conducted, but did not keep accurate evidence about what he actually did there. There is also a version that the future discoverer was born in a family of common people are earning their living by trading and weaving, and therefore did not like to mention his humble origin.

Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus

The arrival of Columbus to Hispaniola (Haiti) in 1492

The first European settlement in the New World (which Columbus called it India, China, Japan) became La Navidad ( "Christmas") on the island of Haiti. In 1492, one of the ships of the Spanish fleet was wrecked, the team made it to the shore, and Columbus decided to leave the Spaniards on the island, founded the first settlement. Food stocks were insignificant, but Columbus was convinced that the sailors easily subdue the local population. When a year later explorer returned to the island, he learned that the natives killed all the settlers for mistreating them.

Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus

D. Vanderlyn. The landing of Columbus in America, 1847Camoy known bug Columbus was certain that he reached the shores of Asia. However, the navigator made a mistake in his calculations - Asia was at least 3 times more than he had expected, and there was a new continent on its way. In South America long before Columbus visited the Normans, but the colonization of the continent began precisely with his expeditions. At the same time the Spanish colony in Haiti, he established severe orders: any uprising was brutally suppressed, while it spared neither the local population nor the Spanish settlers. The colonists even complained Columbus Spanish king. Royal Commissioner arrested navigator and took him to Spain in chains. However, Ferdinand Columbus not only released, but also financed his fourth expedition to the New World.

Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus

His merits Columbus not only assessed at its true worth - he demanded to appoint him Viceroy of new lands. Ferdinand thought the excessive ambitions, although explorer brought a lot of great deals. For example, he proposed to send to settle new lands are not free citizens, and criminals, which reduces the cost of maintaining them in prison. But this coin has a flip side: the criminals are often raised revolts against the authorities of settlements.

Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus

Routes expeditions of Christopher Columbus

The main argument of Columbus has been speculated that in Asia there is a lot of gold, which requires Spain. And navigators undertook to produce it to the public treasury in exchange for a tenth of the profit, the transfer of management of public lands, and the glory of the discoverer. He also promised to bring to Spain "as many slaves as it pleases."

Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus

JL J. Ferris. Columbus' arrival in America

In its report on the first expedition he claimed to have reached the shores of Asia (in fact it was Cuba) and the islands off the coast of "China" (Haiti). He failed to find the richest gold deposits, but local residents were taken to Spain as slaves chose 500 of the strongest Arawak men and women, 200 of whom died on the way. The ratio of the remaining colonies in the locals were extremely brutal: men died in the mines, and women - in the plantations.

Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus

The landing of Columbus in America

Columbus's death in 1506 was almost unnoticed - by the time his fame faded. 20 years after his death began extolling the merits of the navigator. In America today, and the attitude to it is ambiguous: Columbus Day is celebrated not only parades, but also mass demonstrations, during which called the discoverer and colonizer bear his portrait with the inscription "killer".

Odious pioneer: the greatest mistakes and crimes of Christopher Columbus

Portrait of Christopher Columbus