Oneida Commune: sect "free love» XIX century
Oneida - so called utopian corner in the state of New York, appeared in 1848 and lasted more than 20 years. While the rest of the world wore stifling Victorian corsets, buttoned all the buttons under the throat and tried hard not to enjoy sex, in the commune of Oneida dominated other orders. Women can give birth there or not to have their own choice, wearing pants and make love with any man that they like ... Sounds good, but there was a "but".
The father of "free love"
It all started with a man named John Humphrey Noyes - a very controversial figure, due to which, by the way, came into use the phrase "free love." Noyes was an American politician and a public figure. In twenty years, he became interested in religion seriously - so much so that he refused the promising idea of becoming a lawyer and instead wanted the priest career. But the seminary Noyes proved to be not the best way. Not that he was restless or nevdumchivym student, quite the contrary: Noyes is so deeply immersed in the theological questions that are often entered into disputes with colleagues. He was particularly interested in the themes of sin and morality. In his research Noyes came to the conclusion that "his new relationship with God cancel his obligation to obey the traditional moral standards or the ordinary laws of society."
In the end, he was expelled from Yale Seminary and deprived recently issued a pastoral license. It does not look like it was that Noyes was very upset. He went to Patna, where he created a small "Bible School" and other words sect. "I lost them a license to sin, and they continue to do sin; they took my license for preaching, but I continue to preach. "
When Noyes was 27 years old, in his life, there was another significant event that affected communes device. He married Harriet Holton. The first few years, they lived normal "Christian" marriage, that is, without any contraception. For six years Harriat gave birth five times - the birth was an incredibly difficult and traumatic, but survived only one child. Apparently, Noyes did not spit at his wife, because he asked her to stay for a while separately. This idea was brought into their family a huge relief. Still, a complete rejection of sex Noyes saw an imperfect solution, so that he began to study different sexual techniques that would allow both to have fun, but would not lead to pregnancy.
Moreover, Noyes came to the conclusion that any conception should be planned and desired. To the XIX century, this idea was not just unusual - it is contrary to all the canons of Christianity.
The emergence of the commune
Oneida Commune appeared on the banks of the river Oneida Creek on the border of Madison and Oneida counties. I bought the land a man named Jonathan Bart, who became an ardent follower of the ideas of Noyes and he gave the land for construction of a better world. Bart also suggested Noyes founded a community with its own order and morals.
Commune members held values of free love - they were in the so-called group marriage. This meant that any man can have sex with any woman on her consent.
Older men taught the younger special technique of sex - sexual intercourse saved when during sex, a man does not ejaculate and refrains from orgasm. Practiced by youths with older women who have entered menopause. The irony was that this method was very effective: in 20 years of existence of the commune were recorded only 12 unplanned pregnancies. Men who were not able to "hold back", subjected to public condemnation and ridicule. Noyes believed that to be a father of unplanned children as shameful as, say, masturbate.
The young girl is trained in the basics of sex with older men. In particular, the founder of the commune - by Noyes, who willingly gave lessons innocent damsels.
Although it might seem that such a way of life leads to casual sex, it was not quite true. All relationships and cohabitation documented, and in order to get permission to have sex, it was necessary to win the approval of the committee. All of communards lived in a big house in different rooms, so Komunarskiy "tip" closely followed the sexual life of men and women: who, when and with whom ... You could have sex, but you can not get attached, you can not even stay the night with his chosen.
The situation of women
Oneida Commune was one of the most radical and organized attempts to change the role of women in family and society. First, the woman was not obliged to educate their children - the responsibility for them lay on the commune. Second, she could theoretically choose with whom her sleep, and with whom - no. Third, they can perform almost any kind of work, which were capable of, and to wear the clothes that they seemed comfortable - down to knickers (unheard of).
Women as well as men to participate in public activities of the commune. However, as you will be "successful", it did not depend on whether you are a man or a woman in the commune of Oneida, and how like you Noyes.
Free love free love, but if you wanted a "guru", must obey. If the "guru" wished that you wished someone from influential members of Oneida - then so be it, and it is better not to refuse. Noyes often he picked up a pair: in particular, the "united" trustworthy Communards with doubt.
Control and stirpikultura
Stirpikultura - so called eugenic experiment that was carried out for ten years in the commune of Oneida. A term coined by himself Noyes, combining words stirps - "rhizome" and culture - "culture". Since the commune revenues were very limited, Noyes was aware of the need to carefully control the birth rate. So, children, resulting from man's "oversight", raised by parents, but those who appeared as a result of the planned act - the whole commune.
The essence of the experiment was to ensure that every pregnancy is planned carefully for the emergence of a healthy, strong and spiritual progeny. Noyes himself did not stay on the sidelines, having conceived almost a dozen children.
The final decision about what men and women allowed to participate in the experiment, remained behind Noyes, but he had previously discussed the candidates for the corresponding meeting of the commune committee: This committee can approve or not approve the petition of the Communards, who want to have a child. Much more attention was paid to the spiritual qualities of men and women than physical.
In the Oneida was believed that a child should not be tied to their biological parents - instead, he had to take all the members of the commune as a family. Of these children, "stirpikultistov", to educate and train the educated people of the commune. What future would these children? It suggests something dark, but in fact the fate of the majority of children with "stirpikultistov" has developed quite well: they received a good education and live a long life. Not because of their own genetic qualities, of course, but only because they pay much more attention than in the ordinary Victorian family. Vital functions of the commune has been successful until John Humphrey Noyes has not transferred power to his son Theodore Noyes, which led to a split within it. Most of the Communards wanted to go back to traditional marriage. And increased external pressure on the municipality - John Noyes was accused of child molestation (which is probably not unreasonable), and he had to flee from the US to Canada. In 1879, the commune was disbanded, some of its members have created a joint-stock company and continued business. Most pairs were formed to live together.