What Stalin built the most beautiful metro in the world
• What Stalin built the most beautiful subway in the world
The Moscow Metro, whose construction was planned by Tsarist Russia, was built in the complex, and turning the Soviet years. According to Lazar Kaganovich, whose name was of the underground from 1935 to 1955, it became a symbol of the victory of socialism "... the great war, which we are already dozens of years and especially in recent years ..." And his apt phrase, uttered on performance in the Hall of Columns 14 May 1935 on the occasion of the launch of underground "subway victory - victory of socialism" became airborne.
Indeed, Stalin, this building has become symbolic. It showed that the Soviet Union is not inferior to the leading powers of the world, which has been built underground. Moreover, given the scope and features of engineering, architectural and artistic masterpieces, which were embodied in the construction, said that the USSR exceeds global capitalist powers, which means that socialism is more progressive and advanced systems.
How much money was spent on all this splendor? Not yet disclosed all the files, but the published data suggest that the building was a daunting financially.
Thus, the construction of the first metro line - from 15 June 1931 to 15 May 1935 (the first 13 metro stations) was spent 700 million rubles ( "Komsomolskaya Pravda, the number of May 15, 1935, article" Triumph winner, "excerpts from a speech Kaganovich). From the beginning, not everything went smoothly, the difficulties have arisen on the project preparation stage. The initial cost was estimated at 400 mln. rubles (Rotert project, approved in 1931, the capital city party committee). Labor shortages and an underestimation of the Moscow soil characteristics have led to the fact that already in 1932 Metrostroy overspent allocated budget, the annual plan was fulfilled only by a third. After hearing these results, Lazar Kaganovich personally connected to the development of the General Plan of Moscow, associated with the construction of the underground, including he personally supervised the demolition of the temple of Christ the Savior. Historian Roy Medvedev in his book. "The Inner Circle of Stalin's associates Leader" wrote: "... we know that incognito Kaganovich traveled to Berlin to study in Berlin metro When he returned, he said that in Berlin in the subway - a hole in the ground as well. we must be beautiful pavilions ... "
Speeding up the construction led to huge cost overruns and, sometimes, illiterate use of financial resources allocated. Thus, for the equipment, which subsequently did not find the application, more than 9 million rubles have been spent As recalled engineer metrostroevets IV Isar: ". Some phones have worked a couple of days, until it became clear that manual labor Komsomol more productive than imported cars ... ".
On the decoration and the decoration of halls and pavilions money spared. After all, the subway was to be not just a functional element of the transport infrastructure, and ideological symbol, is striking passengers. Revealing such a case: the objections to the proposed metro station "Palace of Soviets" (now "Kropotkinskaya") architect AN Dushkin, it is similar to the Temple of Amun at Karnak, the author said: "... They have palaces for the Pharaohs, and we have - for the people! " According to the head of Metro construction - Paul Rotert, the use of granite, marble and porcelain tiles in the design of the underground, as well as governmental committees active on-demand finishing touch, led to the fact that the budget was exceeded by almost two times.
The second phase of construction - 1937-1938 years, different architectural and engineering diversity. For example, the world's first deep column station were built (Mayakovskaya), implemented vaulted design station Airport, used by national motifs in the design of lobbies (Kiev). The magnitude of the costs of the second stage was 30% less than the first.
Third place broke the Great Patriotic War. The plans of the USSR was the complete destruction of the underground, but when the enemy was driven from the capital, the construction was continued. Civil motifs in the design were replaced by military-patriotic, great importance was given to the theme of national defense. Most estimates of the General Plan of the period until classified, according to various estimates, the cost of building underground in the 1938 - 1945 years ranged from 500 million to one billion rubles.
Fourth place - with the end of the war until Stalin's death, marked by a special pomp and splendor - a flowering of "Stalin's empire". Particular attention was paid to security measures in connection with the beginning of the "Cold War". New deep-laid stations (Arbat line) were to be the bomb shelters for the Muscovites in the event of nuclear war. Experts estimate the cost of implementation of the project was not less than one and a half billion rubles. Given that the post-war years were particularly difficult for the country, which had to be rebuild, otstraivaya literally from the ruins, it was a colossal waste!
Since the beginning of the construction of metro to Stalin's death according to various estimates for the implementation of Metro construction plan has been spent about 3-4 billion rubles. After the death of the "father of nations" at the XX Congress of the CPSU in the framework of plans for "overcoming the cult of personality," the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers № 1871 "On elimination of excesses in the design and construction", it was decided to minimize all architectural excesses, including in construction underground. Metrogiprotrans immediately reacted development of new types of projects of stations and other facilities underground. However, since a number of already existing objects in limbo, in substantial savings this has led not once.