Last flight of the Tu-134
• The last flight of the Tu-134
Tu-134 is a truly legendary Soviet passenger plane.
And here, in the Novosibirsk airport Tolmachevo on permanent pitches flew past eksplutirovavshiysya on Civil Lines in the Russian Tu-134. Board will be an exhibit of the Museum of History aviation airport.
It was one of the most popular and sought after domestic medium-range airliners.
The history of the liner - also a legend. The occurrence aircraft must personally to Nikita Khrushchev. In early 1960, the head of the Soviet state with an official visit to France. There he drew attention to the newest airliner Sud SE-210 "Caravelle", in which Khrushchev was taken to the south of the country.
A much more quiet compared to the Tu-104 cabin (due to the location of the engines at the tail of the fuselage on the pylons) produced at the first Secretary of the CPSU was so impressed that on his return to Moscow, he personally instructed the chief designer Andrei Tupolev create passenger aircraft with a similar "caravel" layout.
This scheme was new to aircraft designers, and had as an undeniable advantages - low noise level in the cabin, clean wing, reducing stress on the fuselage of the jet streams and obvious disadvantages - the need for strengthening and weighting tail design, the bias of gravity and the wing center back design complexity and accessibility of the horizontal tail new T-shaped.
An interesting fact is the desire of the French ship "Caravelle" in the Soviet Union, to which, of course, the leaders of our country, could not go on ideological grounds.
Although the factory in Kharkov just begun serial production of short-haul Tu-124, in KB immediately proceed to the creation of a new machine. Head Dmitry Markov Designer program (then Leonid Selyakov) starts with the basics - Tu-124 (new project for a long time was called Tu-124A): the fuselage was lengthened by 6.6 meters, the new engines PA Soloviev D-20P-125 postponed from wing root to the nacelle at the tail; wing and tail surfaces designed anew.
Profile of a new wing was also changed. However, the diameter of the fuselage nose landing gear remained "inherited" from Tu-124. Remained unchanged and glazed lantern workplace navigator. In general, a new short-haul liner (its purpose - to carry 50-60 passengers at a cruising speed of 700-800 km / h over distances up to 1,500 km) is the logical continuation of the previous Tupolev jets.
The work went quickly, and already 29 July 1963 Tu-124A with the USSR-45075 number, a crew of Alexander Kalina first took to the air. Running tests soon revealed breakdown and stalling problems exit the engine system when landing on wet runway sharp deterioration of stability and controllability when significant deviations of the rudder.
In three years all the identified problems have been resolved a change in airframe design (the most notable of these was the increase in the area of the horizontal stabilizer 30%) or the introduction of limiters. November 6, 1964 the airplane tests were completed and in September 1967 the new aircraft came on line Aeroflot, including international, and in the next, in 1968 began deliveries of Tu-134 for export.
Total, since the advent of the idea in 1960 to enter the new aircraft line took only 7 years old! Able to work sooner.
At that time the new aircraft received a certificate in Poland, according to British standards of airworthiness. All TU-134 operated at least 13 foreign countries, mainly the socialist countries of Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. The initial version of the aircraft was not equipped with a reverse, and braking parachutes were used. In general, changes in the design and appearance of the Tu-134 were introduced on the go, and the test results with the improvement of the equipment and the cab interior.
After only 3 years, in 1969, I was ready a new version - Tu-134A: the airplane was lengthened by 2.1 m, and received new engines D-30 series II, equipped with a reverse device, auxiliary power unit, a new sock fairing keel constant speed reducer, the air conditioning system.
All this provides passengers with comfort and convenience for the crew and technical staff. In addition, the number of passengers has been increased to 76. This modification is the mass of the number of issued copies. She has several varieties, the most unusual of which are exports of Tu-134A, which is exported to the German Democratic Republic, Czechoslovakia, Syria, Yugoslavia, Hungary, North Korea and several other countries.
These aircraft are equipped with onboard radar fairing instead of the glass cockpit of the navigator "Thunderstorm". The same appearance has been standard for a later version of Tu-134B.
The Kharkov factory in 1966 moved to the production of the Tu-134 (instead of the Tu-124), and a year produces an average of 50-70 aircraft, which have become the most popular jets in its segment in Europe.
The massive construction of the Tu-134 ended in 1984, and the last instances of the ship have been issued in 1989. In total 854 aircraft of all versions were built, of which so far in lotnom state are about 125, and 69 were lost in accidents and catastrophes. Among the later aircraft variants should be noted military modification of the Tu-134SH (for training navigators far and tactical bombers) and Tu-134UBL (special version with the nasal part of the Tu-22M: much cheaper proved to train flight crews of sea and strategic aviation on this plane than on the Tu-22M and Tu-160).
These aircraft built specifically or converted from the former in the operation of civil aircraft, are still in service in the Russian Air Force.
The most embodiments steel later Tu-134A-3 / Tu-134B-3, upgraded engine equipped with D-30 Series III, and Tu-134SKH designed specially for monitoring of agricultural land by using special equipment.
In the late 1980s - early 1990s, the Tu-134 and Tu-154 were transported to 75% of the passengers of Aeroflot (in 1991 was transported five hundred millionth passenger Tu-134), and after the collapse of the USSR, and education on the basis of regional offices of Aeroflot airlines countless new Tu-134 and Tu-154 continued to be the basis of their fleet. At the beginning of the 2000s. Tu-134 park has become rapidly obsolete, especially against the background of the beginning of massive importation of foreign production in the Russian aircraft. A particularly important factor was the fuel efficiency (it is clear that the Tu-134, developed 50 years ago to compete with new liners are not able to) and the noise on the ground.
Alas, designed in his time with the filing Khrushchev "quiet" Tu-134 was relatively quiet within. After the tightening of European requirements for noise, the plane could not fly to their airports.
However, the Tu-134, albeit in small amounts, but still found a niche in the VIP-transport. Several aircraft have been converted into luxury options, where passengers can complete with every comfort to make flights. Tu-134 career ends: all the major airlines have already eliminated it from regular operation.