Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

• Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

On the inner ridge of the Crimean Mountains in the southwestern part of the Crimean peninsula is located 14 cave cities. Crimean mountains in this area are inherent steep southern slopes and gentle north. The mountains in this part of the peninsula have a smooth plateau. Cliffs do the approaches to the plateau inaccessible. In ancient times, people have used these mountains to build fortresses, walls reinforcing the only affordable place.

Today will be a story about several well-preserved ancient cave towns of Crimea.

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

Arriving by train from Sevastopol to Bakhchisarai, sit on a bus to the village Staroselie. This is an extreme point, which can be reached by transport. the gorge rises up walking the road to the Holy Assumption cave monastery:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

Location is worth the attention. Straight cut in sheer cliffs carved caves in which monks' cells are placed:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

The Holy Assumption Cave Monastery was founded by Byzantine monks ikonopochitateley no later than the VIII century. Located in the tract Mariam-Dere (Mary Gorge) near Bakhchisarai. During the first defense of Sevastopol in the Crimean War in 1854-1855 years in the cells, the home of the pilgrims and other buildings of the monastery housed a hospital. Died of wounds were buried in the monastery cemetery. In 1921 the monastery was closed by the Soviet authorities.

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

After the relocation from Crimea in other regions of the USSR in 1941, Germans, Armenians, Bulgarians, Greeks, and in 1944 - the Crimean Tatars in the monastery for decades nearby mental hospital. In 1993 he returned to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Restored three of the five monastic churches, monastic cells Corps, abbot house and bell tower. At the bottom of the gorge is now under construction on the expansion of the monastery complex.

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

Inside take pictures did not work t. To. On we go with the abbots rushed arguing that pictures of the monastery itself has banned the lord ...

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

bypasses all available for viewing room and head up the road to the cave city - the fortress Chufut - Calais:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

On the way to our attention comes nondescript direction sign, reading about the grand discovery of the 21st century:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

The find was an ancient 45-meter sedimentary well of the fortress Chufut - Kale:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

The construction consists of a shaft with a suitable sloped 120 - meter tunnel. The volume of work at that time is enormous:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

Fork. Tunnel right through the flooded and dozens of meters rests on a dead end:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

Adit left out in the mine with the outgoing spiral staircase down, hollowed into the rock:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

At the bottom, according to the creators, accumulate, and then climbed pure water:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

On top of the well shaft has an exit to the surface:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

On the ground it looks like this:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

Not far away, at the foot of the fortress Chufut-kale, is another, much more modest in scale, artesian well. Previously, he also was located deep in the rock, but whether a piece of rock fell off, or cut through the wall, archaeologists, and now he is a sectional view at the foot of the fortress:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

It's time to look inside the fortress. Inside are two gates: Kiyuk Kapu (in the east) and Kuchuk mouthpiece (in the southwest). On the other hand almost impregnable fortress. However, we have decided for fun to climb over the wall, just to the north gate Kiyuk Kapu, where there is a weak spot. You can climb up having minimum skills of mountaineering. By the way, in the fortress entrance fee. Gates Kiyuk Kapu:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

A small note:

Calais - medieval fortress town is located 2, 5 km from Bakhchisarai. The fortress was once the capital of the Crimean Khanate. The name is translated from the Crimean Tatar language as a "Jewish fortress", because the Tartars believed Karaite Jews living there because of the similarity of their religion to Judaism.

The town was founded probably in the V century as a fortified settlement on the border of the Byzantine possessions. From the XIV century, the city began to settle and the Karaites, who at the time of formation of the Crimean Khanate were already a large part of the population of the city. Calais remained the main center of the Crimean Karaites to the middle of the XIX century, but gradually emptied - residents moved from the low-water plateau more livable place.

See inside the fortress almost nothing. Most of the space is covered with thickets. In the center of the territory of the old stone road runs from the beaten track of the carts.

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

On the south-west side is a small complex of caves and several commercial buildings. Big and Small kenassas (Karaite house of worship)

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

Gate Kuchut Kapu (South Entrance):

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

The complex business of caves:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

The former estate of a rich system of underground rooms Chaush-Kobasa ( "Head of the Cave") in the northern part of the fortress:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

On the way to descend into the grotto, I heard a beautiful violin melody coming from the ground:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

Inside played violin. As soon as I wanted to take his picture, he immediately ran to the side :) left his bag in the frame. Acoustics is simply incredible! If it was not a violinist, I would be there myself to shout:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

next room:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

In the same part of the fortress is a viewing platform. There are stunning views of the beam Ashlama Bink-Dere and Mount Besh-Kosh.

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

Sunset:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

After completely dark, put forward in the side of the mountain Tepe-Kerman

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

I do not know how much would last walk on forest trails, we did not come across the parking lot of experienced tourists, which have prompted us to the right path. Do not risk to look mountain towns of printouts satellite maps and applications on smartphones. Virtually all the space in the trees, the tops of which almost nothing is visible, and the satellite binding on the phone now and then misses on indecent distance. It is time for me to get a real gps-navigator.

By midnight we were still at the top of the plateau. The rise of the hill by the way is not pleasant. The slope is very steep and the path now and then pours underfoot:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

A small note:

Cave city Tepe-Kerman existed during the VI to the XIV century and reached its greatest prosperity in the XII-XIII centuries. Feature Tepe Kermena is greatest, compared with other cities cave concentration caves. An area of ​​about 1 hectare there are more than 250. The main part of the city is on top of the plateau (540 meters above sea level).

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

An overwhelming number vnutriskalnyh facilities here (about 85%) was used for household needs. Of these, about 88%, or 170-180 rooms are stables for animals. The remainder of the business premises represented estates cellars, tanks for water storage. Non-economic caves used for housing and storage.

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

In many caves there is a hole in the ceiling (most likely to smoke). Taking a walk on the plateau should be extremely careful. Many of these holes are almost invisible among the thickets:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

One of the most remarkable caves cave complex - "the church baptistery" (The church with the baptismal). Located on the north-eastern edge of the plateau:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

The loss of the town is tied in some versions to raid the Golden beklyaribeka Nogai in 1299.

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

The parking was decided to organize the so-called "Dragon Tooth" directly in one of the caves t. To. All the dresses are not weak is blown by the wind. The place was very cozy, and we sincerely celebrated the last night of our trip to the Crimea, a small fire:

Tour of the cave cities of Crimea

Waking up in the morning, I was taken aback opened view from the ledge of the plateau. On the ledge overlook the dozens of kilometers.