As in times past we fought for the appearance of the weekend in Russia
People so often believe that it is a modern way of life, values, and social hierarchy there is always that you can easily start reading the book of the eighteenth century, so to find out what young farmers at the weekend, in fact, rested - two days sleeping off. In fact, the output - a fairly new concept for our lives. By historical standards.
serfs labor code does not apply to
Most of the population of the Russian Empire from the time when she became the Empire, were peasants, most of the Russian population - the serfs. During the reign of Catherine II, who like any rulers before needed the active support of the nobility, the serfs were in a terrible situation, as many before the state peasants moved to the landlords, which significantly worsened their lives. There were frequent cases when the family lived on starvation only because they did not have time to cultivate their gardens or areas on the fields - the whole week has been busy perfecting serfdom.
However, at the insistence of the church on Sunday morning from the peasants it was something like the output - they had to go to pray at this time. In addition, the traditional weekend was the Christmas holidays with the Christmas, Easter and Carnival. Since these days the earth is not processed properly, farmers fairly relaxed. I must say, in relation to output it in a much more advantageous position were Muslim peoples of Russia and the Jews - they put off work every Friday or Saturday, depending on the denomination.
Carnival in the picture Galina Yegorova
Reverse the situation one of the most unpopular kings of Russia, Catherine's son Paul. In the story he no longer came as a painful proud ugly man, who tried the most idiotic way to regulate the lives of the townspeople and made the ladies in all kinds of weather to get out of the carriages to make a curtsy if the crew goes down the street. He also plagued his wife, made even the old nobles to kiss his hand, kneeling so that was heard the sound of the joints of stone or parquet floor, and forbade unexpected wardrobe items. Nevertheless, it is this ridiculous man, while still a prince, for a limited period of serfdom serfs to two days a week, let them go to work, built for them two hospitals and several schools, including a school for disabled children. Having come to power, he manifesto forbade landowners forced serfs to work on a Sunday and recommended to reduce the period of work on the master up to three days a week. In practice, these recommendations were carried out by only the most enlightened and complacent - but still look at the Sunday as a day off, established in Russia.
Alexander I, much beloved king continued his father's initiative, approving the list of public holidays (Orthodox) days in which farmers should not work. But it is still not known in his time, that is the right to leave. Vacation could get badly asked. Betrayed his hand in all exceptional cases. For example, a gentleman, a civil servant could procure a vacation for my health.
Portrait of Paul I.
The fight for the right not to work
Industrialization in Russia came relatively late. Its explosion is directly related to the abolition of serfdom. Although by law the landowners had to give his former peasants to the land, they tried to give the most unsuitable for processing. In order not to starve to death, left without decent allotments peasants began to move to the city or the countryside plants.
I must say that even before the industrialization greatly worsened the situation of workers. In the Middle Ages time in guilds strictly limited - in order to avoid overproduction, which would lead to a collapse in prices, or simply "unfair" windfall. The owners of large factories and factories such considerations were not linked. Russian manufacturers have used the fact that many who want to find work and can be replaced by any disgruntled starved. Therefore, the output at many enterprises nonexistent and widespread phenomenon was sixteen hours a day. The remaining eight hour work had time to bring itself in order to eat and sleep. workers often provide one bed in a dormitory for three - to sleep on it one by one.
Picture Peter Krohonyatkina
When in the late nineteenth century began mass workers' strikes and demonstrations (strikes), manufacturers, and behind them, and the press quickly dubbed the participants bums: they fought for the right not to work! And more precisely, not work more than ten to twelve hours a day (the most desperate require eight to incite radical political movements) do not work even on Sundays, to arrange in the middle of the day mandatory break for lunch.
Such processes occur not only in the Russian Empire. Eighth of March as the holiday was established, for example, in memory of the strike of American workers of textile factories, which are also required to reduce the working day to ten hours. Reduction of working days, the right to a required output of workers strikes on the entire nineteenth century all over the world. In Britain this has led to the fact that half of the Sabbath did the same output.
However, progress began only after natural pogroms: for the right not to work (at least occasionally) work began to beat on the glass factories. In 1897, wanting to reduce the intensity of emotions in Russia to accept the limitations of length of the working day to 11 hours and a half for men and up to 10 hours for women and children, have confirmed the rights to Sunday afternoon, but ... This initiative has been struck-through a resolution to enter overtime. That is to say, the situation has not changed much, only the former normal working hours is now called overtime. Holidays for workers was still no more than a mysterious word.
The artist Boris Johanson
live up to five days
Although after the October Revolution, one of the first decrees approved an eight-hour working day, output is still installed one: according to the same decree, the maximum working week has been recommended in forty-eight hours, that is, in six days. Holy days the Soviet government replaced its, new.
Beginning in the late twenties, with the output generally went pandemonium. That worked six-day weeks with a rest every sixth day, the five-day. Eventually he returned to the calendar week, but still worked six days out of seven. In addition, very often labor legislation was not fulfilled on the ground, people were forced to take on recycling, the company can boast of over-fulfillment plan. The collective working day in general strongly dependent on the characteristics of agriculture.
Picture Yuri Petrov
A six-day working week was the same in most European countries and in the majority of US companies. Interestingly, of the fact that in the United States migrated many Jewish families were companies where employees of the output set for Sunday, and some - on Saturday. There were also companies where just these two days were declared output. The first such incident occurred in 1908. Later two weekends instead of one popularized by Henry Ford, a large car owner.
The situation is gradually broken in after the Second World War. In Europe, here and there we began to introduce two output - became the second Saturday. It is believed that thus struggled to arise due to a technical breakthrough and the return of a large number of men at his place of overproduction. In the USSR, the law on the two days off per week instead of one taken in 1967. Now it is possible to devote a weekend not only domestic work, but also walks, visits to the cinema and theater.
Artist Peter Shigimaga
This is a limitation of the working week of forty hours had inherited and the Russian Federation, despite the fact that it is widely violated in the name of "corporate culture" and heard a proposal to establish the rate of sixty hours per week. Meanwhile, in Europe, are calls to reduce the working day to twenty - twenty-five hours a week.
Firstly, it is optimal for health, and secondly, in view of technical progress in many cases effectively and working hours stretching up to eight hours only slightly improves productivity when compared with what it had been at twenty-hour working week. Third, it would help provide jobs in areas where it is very important the presence of a person, for example, in medicine, literally all - but there is there is a question on funding and how the money at all to share.