Censorship in American films of the past years

• Censorship in American films of the past years

It is difficult to imagine American countries, fighting for the highest moral principles and upholding ethical standards, but at the beginning of the last century, this was the case. Almost 40 years in the Hollywood acting Hays Code, which even then many considered too strict. In this review, a story that is forbidden in the old American films and as a director avoided these prohibitions.

Censorship in American films of the past years

It is interesting that this Code of Ethics, adopted in 1930 by the Association of manufacturers and distributors of films, was completely independent of the Hollywood initiative. The state did not have any relation to it. Why did the filmmakers themselves have imposed restrictions on your creativity? The fact that in the late XIX century, the US public began to react badly to "rampant immorality" things happening on the screens. Particularly outraged respectable citizens movie, now would call a video showing a kiss male and female. This 18-second nightmare led to many performances and public debates.

Censorship in American films of the past years

In addition, several high-profile scandals involving Hollywood stars led to the fact that US movie studios have come to believe "nest of vice." In 1921, many state legislators banned the show nearly 100 films. Filmmakers reflect on the reputation of the cinema in general, and came to the conclusion about the need to take action on their own until they are imposed from above.

The result is a special censorship committee, which, together with the politician and Presbyterian elder Will Hayes engaged in the development of the rules. This set of laws by which Hollywood lived the next 40 years, called the Hays Code. Making films that do not meet these rules, it was not forbidden, but in a large their rental would never have, so that the measure was, though not official, but very effective. Here is a partial list of what was forbidden in American films:

- Coarse and even just expressive expression, as well as "reference to God in vain."

- Any nudity (including shadows or silhouettes) and talk about sex in a positive way (in the negative to mention was possible).

- Any mention of sexual perversion, prostitution, which in the code tactfully called "white slavery" or sexually transmitted diseases.

- Demonstration of mixed race marriages (this is tantamount to licentiousness Americans estimated distortions in those years).

- Scenes of birth.

- ridicule clergy or display clergymen in an unfavorable form (.. Ie monk could be a comic character or villain).

- Mention of the sale of drugs.

In addition, a huge list of different concepts of "not recommended". It included activities such as: arson, torture, murder, riots, seduction, surgery and prolonged kissing. This last prohibition, perhaps, still is the most perplexing, and that he has always been a headache for most filmmakers. How could show the passion heroes, if they can not kiss for longer than three seconds? Outputs of the situation is the most original.

For example, in the movie "Notorious" 1946 genius Alfred Hitchcock shared a kiss protagonists played by Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman in several parts. Lovers in a scene is constantly interrupted, but returned to the pleasant experience again and again, at the same time moving around the room.

Censorship in American films of the past years

In 1943, the film "His Butler's Sister" Frank Borzedzh solved this problem in the following elegant way: heroes Dina Durbin and Frenchota Towne start kissing, stepping into the elevator, and then enclosed cab is raised right up to 22 floors. The doors open, and the audience can see that a kiss is still going on, and takes it in front of them even exactly 3 seconds. It is believed that fashion jeweled navel films went, for example, the ban on the demonstration of this erotic part of the female body. Joan Collins in the film "The Land of the Pharaohs" in 1955 for the first time on the screen covered her navel ruby, whereafter the method began to be used in many motion pictures.

Censorship in American films of the past years

The ban almost got Tarzan novel, numerous film adaptation of which delighted the audience in the middle of the last century. The fact that relations between the savage and the white woman, in principle, fall under the prohibition of interracial marriages. The creators of the film out of the situation, adding the son of the jungle a little civility. But since to do so with the help of clothes within the meaning could not manage, the actor who performs this role, I had to shave his chest .... So the character began to look much more intelligent, and commission him to miss.

We are used to scold Soviet censorship, forbidding as it seemed, just about everything but the American adherents of morality in fact were often much scrupulous ours. And the current force banning overseas were money. The creator of "Star Wars" George Lucas, for example, as assessed the situation:

"I know a lot of Russian directors, and they have much more freedom than I do. In the world in which we live, in a coordinate system that we have created for ourselves - and this is a huge industry - in any case it is impossible to lose money. In the end, it came down to what is strictly necessary to remove a certain movie. And I always say to those who in Soviet times ask me, they say, "how, do not you glad that you live in America ?!" that Russian directors importantly - how to more careful to criticize the government as possible. For the rest, they were free to do anything. "

Censorship in American films of the past years

Surprisingly, there is a belief that today, despite the rampant all that was forbidden before American cinema continues to live by these principles. Since 1968 the Hays Code was repealed, but it was done not out of a desire to unleash the creative potential of cinema, but because of the competition of more explicit foreign films and television. Since that time, a limiting factor for the filmmakers was the system of age MPAA movie rating. E., You can shoot almost anything, but according to "adulthood" film is assigned to one of four ratings.

In practice, of course, foreign cinema, much has changed. References to sexual minorities and their introduction into the movies in a positive way now, for instance, are not prohibited, and even recommended, but, nevertheless, many directors believe that Hollywood degenerates into a tolerant tales conveyor due to a desire to please a mass audience, which, general, as well as 100 years ago, wants to come to the movies with your family and to look at what does not shock him. That such films collect the most box office, and this is crucial for producers of mass dreams.