Period in the USSR, when the standard of living was the highest
In the USSR, the standard of living is constantly changing. There were periods when the population was on the verge of poverty and hunger, but behind them there comes a time when the Soviet citizens did not live worse than in developed Western countries.
The first years of Soviet power, the Bolsheviks were trying to get out of the chaos that has arisen and their fault. Khrushchev described this period: "Here we have overthrown the monarchy, the bourgeoisie, we have won our freedom, and the people are worse off than before. As a mechanic in the Donbass before the revolution, I was earning 40-45 rubles per month. Brown bread cost pennies 2 pound (410 grams) and white - 5 cents. Salo was going to 22 pennies per pound, egg - a penny apiece. Good boots were worth 6, maybe 7 rubles. But after the revolution, the earnings dropped, and even very, prices same - greatly risen. "
only to the mid-thirties, the seventh year of the industrialization of the Soviet Union was able to leave on a high level of industrial development and is relatively stable to provide citizens with essential commodities. What is important - by this time the Soviet Union was the first among other countries managed to overcome unemployment.
The Stalinist breakthrough.
The main thing that Stalin did - to revive the national production. On the eve of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union in terms of gross industrial output was the second country in the world, only slightly behind the United States and well ahead of the developed European countries.
After the war our country in a short time manages to overcome the devastation. Already in 1946, a 20% increase wages of workers and engineers working in factories and construction sites in the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. The same amount raised salaries of citizens with secondary and higher education, including doctors, teachers and researchers.
The standard of living of the Soviet population by 1953 - the time of Stalin's death - can be estimated on the basis of materials research budgets of families of workers, employees and collective farmers, held by the Central Statistical Office (CSO). According to the CSO to the most affluent segment of the population to the employees of defense industry enterprises, design organizations, research institutions, university professors, doctors, workers cooperatives and military.
Of these groups, the highest income was at physicians: for each member of their families on a monthly basis had an average of 800 rubles. The lowest income categories among the urban population was the employees of industrial enterprises - 525 per month for each family member, from farmers such income was 350 rubles.
After the abolition of the card system, the government has greatly reduced the price of food in the shops, including those that did not relate to essential goods. For example, cake value dropped to 3 to 30 rubles. More than three times the price tag down and kolkhoz markets.
Cheap was food in catering establishments. Thus, lunch in the student cafeteria, which included soup with meat and one with meat, juice or tea and a bun was worth only 2 rubles. Furthermore, always free bread lying on the table. Since 1949, the decline in prices has become commonplace, an average of 20% per year.
In 1953, the average salary in the USSR amounted to 719 rubles, or $ 179. With the transfer in today's money - about 1600 - 1700 dollars.
The Khrushchev thaw.
After coming to power, Khrushchev, the Soviet standard of living of citizens has continued to grow. In 1957 he was promoted salary of low-paid workers and employees, and from 1959 to 1965 by almost 1, 5 times increased, and the average salary. In 1964, the pension was first introduced to the collective farmers, also abolished tuition fees. The authorities are investing a lot in health, at this time, an increase in life expectancy. But most importantly, what Khrushchev is remembered, so it's a massive housing construction. During 1956-60 th years, albeit compact, but their own apartments moved more than 50 million people -. Almost a quarter of the population of the USSR.
At the same time the beginning of the 60s the state resources on maintaining a favorable social policies began to dry up, a new round of "Cold War" has led to an increase in military spending, disruptions in the economy began. Not in vain for the country and Khrushchev's experiments in the economy, leading to an outflow from the country of the gold reserves. In 1964, there is a perceived lack of bread, and for the first time the authorities have to buy grain abroad.
It is curious that in the Khrushchev era blossom Soviet clandestine millionaire. Among them, Siegfried Gazenfrants and Isaac Singer, who made fortune in the garment industry. First I bought a spacious house and hired workers, the second liked to carouse in the restaurants and in what does not deny.
Even after a voluntarist Khrushchev, who offered to catch up and overtake America, began a period of stagnation under Brezhnev. And the life of Soviet citizens stabilized. If we take into account the development of the index of human development bytuyuschy today, the Soviet Union on its performance is among the top five most developed countries of the world.
Living in the US Professor Sergei Lopatnikov working at the Center for Composite Materials University of Delaware, he argued that the standard of living of the Soviet people in the 80s was not only correlated with the US, but in some ways superior to the quality of life and 80% of Americans at the time.
In the Brezhnev era has come time of grace for the agriculture, the oil and gas industry and the space industry. The average salary in the country was 120-130 rubles. In the 1970s it was possible to live peacefully even for a student scholarship at 30-50 rubles. But there were many categories of people who had higher than average income. So, associate professor of the university in the month received 250-300 rubles, metallurgists salary, miners, oil reached 500 rubles. Any worker could buy goods on credit or credit at a rate not exceeding 2%.
In the Brezhnev era became available the opportunity to develop personal and household plots. "The farm private - a common cause" - was common at the time slogan. Surplus agricultural products through a system of consumer buying up of the population, while prices were 30-40% higher than for the procurement of the collective farms and state farms.
For 18 years during the reign of Brezhnev was built about 1, 6 billion. M. m. of living space, which entered 162 million. man. These were not the Khrushchev malogabaritki and spacious and comfortable apartments.
On the eve of the crisis.
By 1985, the Soviet Union is firmly occupied the 1st place in Europe and 2nd in the world (after the US) in terms of industrial and agricultural production. The average salary for 1985 in line with the RSFSR 199 rubles, in the country - 150 rubles. Regular monthly expenses - payment of housing, food, transportation and other essential services - usually does not exceed 50% of revenue, which allowed Soviet citizens seriously save.
Food in the late Soviet Union have been available to all: no more than 3 rubles. 50 kopecks. cost kilogram of meat, 16 cents - loaf of white bread, about Ruble - dozen eggs, 36 cents - liter milk bottle vodki- 3 rubles 62 penny.
Living standards remained consistently high, despite the fact that the first negative trends have already emerged in the economy. Andropov and Chernenko were not significantly affected by the situation, but Andropov and attempts were made to inject fresh blood into the socio-economic life of the country.
Gorbachev's perestroika, designed to transform the face of socialism, led to quite unexpected results. When the actions of inept management staff quality of life of citizens has been steadily falling. it became clear that socialist methods of economic management have outlived their usefulness to the middle of 1990 as follows: the country was on the verge of market reforms.
At the beginning of 1991 were inflated 2-4 times the price of food products, transportation and utilities. Began regular interruptions in the supply of the population, which led to the tobacco, sugar and vodka crisis. Many essential goods became available only for coupons. The country is the first time in a long time faced with the problem of queues.
The state budget deficit, in other words, the excess of expenditure over income, was, according to various estimates, from 20% to 30% of gross domestic product (GDP). Become commonplace unemployment and racketeering. The country is slowly rolled to the redistribution of state property.