Interesting facts about the life of Russian scientist Dmitry Mendeleyev
February 8, 1834 in Tobolsk born scientist Dmitri Mendeleev, who worked successfully in many areas of science. One of his most famous discoveries - the periodic law of chemical elements.
Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleyev - the father of Mendeleev, XIX century
The seventeenth child of
Dmitri Mendeleev was the seventeenth child of Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleyev, who served as director of the Tobolsk Gymnasium. At that time, a large family was atypical for the Russian intelligentsia, even rarely seen in villages such families. However, by the time of the birth of the future of the great scientist in the family Mendeleevs survived two boys and five girls, eight children had died in infancy, three of these parents do not even have time to give a name.
Mary D. Mendeleev (nee Kornileva), the mother of the Mendeleev
The monument to Dmitry Mendeleev and his periodic table on the wall of Institute of Metrology. Mendeleev in St. Petersburg
Losers and gold medalist
In high school Dmitri Mendeleev went bad, did not like the Latin and the law of God. During his studies at the Main Pedagogical Institute of St. Petersburg, the future scientist was in the second year. Study at the beginning was not easy. In the first year at college, he managed in all subjects except mathematics, receive unsatisfactory marks. Yes, and in mathematics he was only "satisfactory".
But things went differently on older years: the average score Mendeleev was equal to 4, 5, with only the top three - on the law of God. Mendeleev graduated in 1855 with a gold medal and was appointed as a senior teacher of the gymnasium in Simferopol, but due to undermined while studying health and outbreak of the Crimean War was transferred to Odessa, where he worked as a teacher at the Richelieu Lyceum.
Scales, designed by Mendeleev for weighing gases and solids
An acknowledged master suitcases Affairs
Mendeleev liked to bind books, glue the frame for portraits, as well as produce bags. In St. Petersburg and in Moscow he was known as the best in the Russian master suitcases Affairs. "From the Mendeleev", - said merchants. His products were of good quality and of good quality. Scientists have studied all known at the time of glue recipes and came up with a special adhesive mixture. The method of its preparation Mendeleev kept secret.
Mendeleev. Trying to understand the chemical world aether. St. Petersburg, 1905
A little known fact, but the famous scientist had to engage in industrial espionage. In 1890, Dmitri Mendeleev called Marine Minister Mykola Chikhachev and asked for help to get the secret of the manufacture of smokeless powder. Since buying this powder was quite expensive, the great chemist asked to unravel the secret of production.
By adopting the tsarist government's request, Mendeleev ordered in the library reports railways in Britain, France and Germany for 10 years. According to him it was the proportion of how much coal was brought, nitrate and the like to the powder mill. A week after the proportions were made, he made two of smokeless gunpowder for Russia. Thus, Dmitry Mendeleev was able to obtain the secret information that he obtained from public records.
"Russian Standard" vodka is not invented by Mendeleev
Dmitry Mendeleev invented vodka. An ideal fortress in 40 degrees and she vodka was invented until 1865, when Mendeleev defended his doctoral thesis on "The Discourse on the alcohol with water." About vodka in his thesis is not a word, it is devoted to the properties of mixtures of alcohol and water. In his paper scientists discovered proportion ratio regia and water at which the extreme reduction of volume of the mixed fluids. This alcohol solution with a concentration of about 46 weight percent. The ratio has nothing to do with 40 degrees. Forty-degree vodka appeared in Russia in 1843, when Dmitry Mendeleev was 9 years old. Then the Russian government in the fight against vodka diluted to set a minimum threshold - vodka should be strength of not less than 40 degrees, the error permitted in 2 degrees.
Photo portrait of Mendeleev in 1861, the court photographer SL Levitsky
"Mendeleev" gunpowder Russia bought from the Americans
In 1893, Dmitri Mendeleev started the production of smokeless gunpowder invented by him, but the Russian government, then headed by Pyotr Stolypin, it has not had time to patent and invention benefited from overseas. In 1914, Russia bought from the United States a few thousand tons of the powder for the gold. Americans themselves, laughing, did not hide that sell Russian "Mendeleev gunpowder."
A large tethered balloon A. Giffard, which Mendeleev was raised in 1878, in Paris
The inventor of the balloon
October 19, 1875 in the report on the meeting of the Physical Society at St. Petersburg University Dmitri Mendeleev put forward the idea of a balloon with a pressurized gondola to study high-altitude layers of the atmosphere. The first embodiment of the installation implies the possibility of lifting the upper atmosphere, but later scientist designed balloon with controllable motors. However, the money was not found even a scientist to build a high-altitude balloon. As a result of Mendeleev's proposal has not been implemented. The world's first stratospheric balloon - it became a sealed balloons designed for flight in the stratosphere (height of more than 11 kilometers), - flew only in 1931 from the German city of Augsburg.
The pycnometer Mendeleev
Mendeleev invented the use of pipeline for pumping oil
Dmitri Mendeleev fractional distillation scheme was developed and formulated the theory of inorganic origin oil. He first stated that burn oil in furnaces - a crime, because of it you can get a lot of chemicals. He also suggested that the oil companies to transport oil is not on carts and in wineskins, and in tanks and to pump it through pipes. Scientist at the numbers proved far more expedient to carry oil in bulk, and plants for the processing of oil to build in areas of oil consumption.
The founders of the Russian Chemical Society (members of the chemistry section of the 1st Congress of Russian naturalists and physicians who made the decision on the establishment - January 4, 1868). Mendeleev stands 10th on the left
Three times nominated for the Nobel Prize
Dmitri Mendeleev was nominated for the Nobel Prize, awarded since 1901, three times - in 1905, 1906 and 1907 respectively. However, it was nominated only foreigners. Members of the Imperial Academy of Sciences has repeatedly rejected his candidacy in a secret ballot. Mendeleev was a member of many foreign academies and scientific societies, but never became a member of the Russian Academy of native.
Tomb Mendeleev at Literatorskie jetty in St. Petersburg
Mendeleev's name is a chemical element №101
Mendeleev called chemical element - mendelevium. Obtained artificially in 1955, the element was named after the chemist who first began to use the periodic system of elements to predict the chemical properties of elements yet to be discovered. In fact, Mendeleev was not the first one who created the periodic table of the elements, and not the first who suggested periodicity of the chemical properties of elements. Mendeleev's achievement was to determine the frequency and on its basis the elements composing the table. The scientist left empty cells for as yet undiscovered elements. As a result, using a frequency table, it was possible to identify all of the physical and chemical properties of the missing elements.
Ilya Repin. Portrait of Mendeleev in the mantle of Doctor of Laws, University of Edinburgh. 1885