Mischievous child of destiny, from an impoverished 17-year-old widow, the Duchess to the Russian Empress
• mischievous child of destiny, from an impoverished 17-year-old widow, the Duchess to the Russian Empress
Anna Ivanovna - one of the youngest in the history of the rulers of Russia, which, of course, because of their age and education there is little sense in government. Widowed at 17, she became the Duchess of Courland, and later, in 1730, became the autocratic empress. A lover of luxury and an idle life, she made history as the windy nature and far away.
Louis Caravaque, Portrait of Empress Anna Ivanovna, 1730
Anna Ivanovna was the niece of Peter I. Her relationship with her mother evolved hard, maybe that's why it suffered the fate of being married to Frederick William, Duke of Duchy of Courland and Semigallia. However, after the wedding ceremony young husband lived for a short time, he died three months later, after not reaching the tumultuous celebrations of St. Petersburg in his patrimony. After the sudden death of the legitimate authority of the Courland passed into the hands of Anna Ivanovna, and she did not take the opportunity priminula.
Johann Heinrich Wedekind, Portrait of Empress Anna Ivanovna
Ivan Sokolov, Anna Ivanovna, engraving, 1740
It would seem that fate, and so was quite favorable to the young duchess, but there she was destined even brighter future. Returning to Russia took place in 1730, after the death of Paul II broke a serious struggle for the throne. The candidacy of Anna Ivanovna relish a member of the Supreme Council, because it could easily lead. Initially, it was decided to admit her to the throne under the conditions of so-called "standard", a set of laws that substantially restrict its political activity. After ascending the throne of Anna Ivanovna abolished the "condition" and became a full empress. In this regard, the military oath Anna twice.
Anna Ivanovna breaks condition
Anna Ivanovna was in power for 10 years. During this time, little has been done on her initiative, many decisions are made under the influence of her favorite - Ernst Biron, a nobleman from Courland. The only thing that really fascinated Anna - this festival. Empress spared no money on entertainment, surround themselves with jesters and courtiers, who were obliged to entertain the crowned heads.
Valery Jacobi Jesters in the court of Empress Anna Ivanovna, 1872
The apotheosis was the reign of Empress wedding jesters, costly and large-scale event that Anna started a for fun. For this wedding on her orders were to build a palace of ice, ornate ice sculptures. Newlyweds began her jesters - 30-year-old Kalmyk Avdotia Buzheninova (name her reward Empress of the national addiction to meat dishes) and demoted to the jesters nobleman Mikhail Kvasnikov (real surname Golitsyn). Coming from a noble family fell into disgrace for having voluntarily replaced religion by marrying a Catholic.
Valery Jacobi, Ice House, 1878
To mock wedding Anna ordered to send his wife abroad Golitsyn, and returned to the true apostate, according to their understanding, faith. For the ceremony, from the far corners of the Russian Empire were written by representatives of various nationalities (about 300 people). After the wedding ceremony, Anna ordered to send the young in their icy apartment for the wedding night. Unhappy clowns were doomed to freeze in an ice bed before dawn in the cold -40. Fortunately, both survived.
Portrait of the Empress Anna Ivanovna
During the reign of Anna Ivanovna had not been marked by significant reforms, but her initiative was cast "Tsar Bell", the largest church bell in the world that can be seen today in the Kremlin.