Salt "white oil" Russia
Nothing if not valued so much. Nothing is now not be so cheap. Salt - "white oil" Russia.
The first mention of salt production in Russia refers to 1037, when Prince Svyatoslav Olegovich Novgorod commanded to charge each saltworks salt tax. Already in the XII century salt production was widespread in Pomerania (the north of the European part of the White Sea shore of Lake Onega Onega River, Northern Dvina, Mezen, Pechora, Kama, Vyatka). By this time the people of Novgorod went to the White Sea, and "brought" here is salt production. The history of salt extraction in Russia - not only in the ancient chronicles, but also in the names of ancient Russian cities: Solikamsk, Solvychegodsk, Usolye-Siberian.
The salt-ruble: how much for the course?
In Russia princely retainers were paid with salt. The Ipatiev Chronicle, describing the struggle with the boyars Prince Daniel in Galicia (in 1242), specifically states that the grand dukes hold "Coloma" (the title salt in a place of production), "for the hand combatants."
Much later, in the XVII century, already in tsarist Russia, salt was part of the salaries of serving people: archers, gunners, collars.
Dodgy landlords: why spend money when you can send the land poor work on the salt fish. The labor of these workers were paid with salt, and landlords took her to me instead of dues.
However, it was not only in Russia: in ancient Rome the army were paid with salt. She was granted the centurion (commander of the hundreds), who exchanged it on different products and distributed to the soldiers. "Salt" euphemistically called pay Roman soldiers, even on this there was the name of a small coin: in Italy "soldi" and in France "Solid" (the French word "Saler" - salary).
In the XVII century in Ukraine there are many adventurous, brave people of the free Cossacks and rich peasants, who were taken from the Slavic steppes bread and wood products in the Black Sea to the south, and from the south brought salt and salted fish. Black Trail and Muravskiy Way - the two main chumacheskie road.
Black Trail gets its name because of the danger posed to the travelers. He stretched from Volyn to Uman, thence along secret paths, deep canyons and shores of steppe rivers, reached the Baltic States and the Dnieper. Muravskiy Way, in ancient times, "Solon Road" came from the depths of Ukraine in the Crimea and the Sea of Azov.
Stroganovs: salt kings
Chumaky salt supplied to Ukraine and southern Russian lands. In the central Russian market is still felt The lack of it. But at the beginning of the XV century it began salt production Priuralsky region, where there were enterprising migrants from the Russian land.
In the second half of the XVI century, downstream of the Kama, in the New Usolye appeared Anika Stroganov, the famous founder of the "dynasty" of industrialists, holding in his fist all the Ural for two centuries.
Trade turnover grew in the second half of the XVII century Stroganov, except salt, traded iron, bread, fish from their fisheries and furs that are exchanged in the Siberian peoples. Industrialists bought the peasants for land brought salt and fisheries began to plow up virgin land under cultivation and to expand their holdings.
Salt fish is so enriched them, that in the XVII century, the company employs up to ten thousand "free" workers and up to five thousand serfs and land in the Perm region they were about eight million acres. Stroganov had a large financial aid to the new government of Tsar Mikhail Romanov, for which he received the right "to be written to by HIV", ie with a full middle name, and is called "eminent persons". So wealthy industrialists actually got a right to all the salt trade, and at the mercy of the customs duties on fisheries and catch a sable.
salt to the wound
Drudgery soledobytchikov quite accurately described the Maxim Gorky in his story "In the salt." These hard workers every day for long hours standing in the water barefoot. Salt corroded skin of the feet; its particles with air is ingested, causes severe respiratory disease.
All the salt in the salt
With salt in Russian it involves a lot of apt expressions and special signs: walk away with nothing - "go away empty-handed" to get to know the person - "a peck of salt is necessary to eat together." Sprinkle salt - to quarrel (because of its high cost of a few centuries ago, this offense is hard to imagine without scandal). Until now, dear guests in Russia meet on an old custom: solemnly to present bread and salt is necessary, the symbols of Slavic hospitality and cordiality.