The paid in Ancient Rus
Before the advent of their coins in Russia and went to the Roman denarius, and Arab dirhams, and Byzantine Solidus. In addition, pay the seller could and fur. Of all these things, and having the first Russian coins.
The first coin minted in Russia, called silversmith. Even before the Baptism of Russia, during the reign of Prince Vladimir, she was cast in the Arab silver dirhams, which in Russia has been experiencing an acute shortage. And two pieces of silver design existed. At first they copied the image of the Byzantine solidus coin: on the obverse depicted a prince, seated on a throne, and on the back - Pantocrator, that is Jesus Christ... Soon, silver coins held redesign: instead of the face of Christ on the coins were minted generic sign of Rurik - a trident, and around the portrait of Prince placed the legend: "Vladimir on the throne - and his silver" ( "Vladimir on the throne, and it was his money").
In addition to the silversmith Prince Vladimir rapped and similar gold coins - zlatniki or spools. They, too, were made in the manner of the Byzantine solidus and weighed about four grams. Despite the fact that their number was quite a bit - to the present day came a little more than a dozen zlatniki - their name is firmly lodged in popular sayings and proverbs: small spool, but weighty. Mal valve, but the gold is weighed, great camel, so carry water. Nedolya poods share spools. The trouble comes poods, and goes spools.
At the turn of IX - X centuries in Russia there is already a fully domestic currency - the hryvnia. First hryvnia were weighty ingots of silver and gold, which were probably the benchmark weighting, rather than money - for them it was possible to measure the weight of precious metal. Kiev hryvnia weighed about 160 grams and is shaped like a hexagonal bar and Novgorod hryvnia were long bar of about 200 grams of weight. And the hryvnia were in vogue, and the Tatars - on the territory of the Volga was known "Tatar UAH", made in the shape of a rook. The name of the hryvnia has received from the women's jewelry - gold bracelet, or a hoop which is worn around the neck - withers or Grivko.
The equivalent of modern penny in ancient Russia was Vaxjo. Sometimes it is called a squirrel or veveritsey. There is a theory that, along with a silver coin in circulation was dressed winter skin proteins, which has its equivalent. Until now, there are disputes about the famous phrase of the chronicler that the Khazars took as a tribute to the glades, northerners and Vyatichi: coin or protein "smoke" (house). To save the hryvnia, Old man would need 150 Vaxjo.
The Russian lands went east and dirham. It, but also the European denarius, also enjoyed popularity in Russia called kunoy. There is a version that was originally Kuna cloth martens, squirrels and foxes to the princely stamp. But there are other versions associated with foreign origin Coons name. For example, many other nations who had to handle the Roman denarius, the coin there is conformable to Russian kun name - for example, the British coin.
exact calculation problem in Russia decides on its own. For example, cut a hide martens or other fur-bearing animals, thereby adjusting a piece of fur under a particular cost. Such pieces were called cutting. And because the skin Fur and Arab dirham were equivalent, then divided into pieces and coins. To this day, in the ancient treasures are halves or even quarters dirhams, because Arab coin was too large for the small commercial transactions.
Another small coin was nogata - it cost about a twentieth of the hryvnia. Her name is usually associated with the Estonian nahat - fur. In all probability, too, was originally nogata pelts any beast. It is noteworthy that in the presence of all sorts of petty cash, every thing tried to connect with his money. In the "Lay", for example, it says that if Vsevolod would have been on the throne, the slave would cost "at nogata", and the slave - "by cutting".