The main characters in the history of Russia

The main characters in the history of Russia

The main function of the state symbol - to express the main idea of ​​the state, its formula, its DNA. Founder of traditionalism Rene Guenon believed that characters may act on their own, independently of our consciousness.

Tamga Vladimir

The main characters in the history of Russia

Trident Vladimir can be called the first symbol of Russian power. It belongs to the so-called tamgas, ie tribal symbols. On the Russian language the word "tamga" translates to "brand" or "stigma". Various tamgas used for thousands of years people of the Eurasian steppe - Sarmatians, Huns, Turks Selcuk, the Mongols. Each individual property has tamga marker. Sacred, unifying the functions they are not imposed. Roughly - tamga simply means "It's mine." That is, when confronted with this symbol, a person had to understand - "This is strange."

Most historians tamgu elevate Vladimir to dive-falcon - the symbol of Rurik. The historian of the XIX century Stapan Gedeonov linked the very name of Rurik with the word "Rerek" (or "Rarog"), which in Slavic tribe Obodrits meant falcon. During the excavation of the early settlements of the Rurik dynasty many images of this bird was found.

George

The main characters in the history of Russia

The first officially documented evidence of the appearance of St. George in 1497 relates to the national flag. Then the rider-zmeeborets appeared on the face of John III print. I must say that the Lancer on the print was identified as St. George is only a few centuries - is no indication in the modern era of John III of that this is George, is not found.

Many historians have expressed doubts that the Moscow State Printing 1497 depicts St George. For example, some researchers argue that, most likely, the rider c printing is the Archangel Michael, who at the time of Ivan Kalita was a patron of the Moscow princes. Iconographic plot "Archangel Michael, formidable forces the governor" where Archangel riding a spear tramples the devil appeared in the Russian Orthodox tradition only at the end of the XVI century. Prior to that, in Russia, the angel depicted on foot with sword or spear in his hand. Furthermore, according to the canon, Arhistratig depicted with wings and a halo (incidentally, as binding. George), but printing on a great Prince these attributes are not. Using the image of a rider hitting the snake was not pure innovation of John III. Thus, the use of Prince of Moscow Vasily the Dark, the father of John, in the first half of the XV century. However, the prince minted spearmen on Moscow coins on the prince's print appeared as a horseman with a falcon on his shoulder. Picture of the Lancer on the coins also does not indicate that he is a saint.

Moreover, if on one side of the coin corresponds to the plot of the history of St. George slaying the serpent with a spear, then on the other side we see already the rider, swinging a sword at the snake, which is not the iconographic canon. Who then is this rider, if any, St. George or the Archangel Michael? A number of historians insist that it is the prince himself. As in the case of coins of Basil Dark, and in the case of John III seal.

After the death of John III symbol Ophiuchus rider used Vasily III, John IV of Fyodor Ivanovich, Boris Godunov, False Dmitry, SHUISKI, Mikhail Fedorovich, Alexis, Theodore A., Peter I, but none of these monarchs Spearman did not appear in the documents like George.

As the Russian tsars "personified" one of the main images of their power, and remains a mystery to us. Only in 1730, with the approval of the 88 coats of arms of Russian cities, ring zmeeborets received the name of St. George

The double-headed eagle

The main characters in the history of Russia

For the first time as a heraldic symbol of Russia (then the Grand Duchy of Moscow) headed eagle appeared in 1497 under Ivan III. Then the eagle adorned the Great Seal. Whence "flew" the two-headed eagle on the Russian state heraldry? Most historians explain his appearance on the Rus marriage of John III and the Byzantine princess Sophia Palaeologus, which brought the heraldic symbol as a "dowry". Moscow needs serious ideological sense (today it is called brand) for international recognition. Headed eagle Moscow princes gave the opportunity to create a more civilized positioning on the international scene, demonstrating the Western community brilliant "genealogy" - the succession of power from Rome and Byzantium. Subsequently, under Tsar Vasily III it will develop into a major religious and political concept of "Moscow - the Third Rome".

There is also a version that the two-headed eagle came to Russia not from Byzantium and from Gamsburgov, use this symbol for half a century before the advent of the fantastic feathered on gospechati Ivan III. By the way, the Byzantines never used this ornithological symbol on the state seal (as opposed to the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire). In addition, no one knows why, but the eagle as a "dowry" appeared in the public press, almost 20 years after the marriage of John III and Sophia Palaeologus.

Another version of the appearance of the two-headed eagle - from the Tatars. The Golden Horde some time to mint coins with the two-headed eagle. Of course, John III was holding a "Tatar currency". At the time of his reign, the Golden Horde was going through a period of decay, while in 1483 has not stopped its existence. Perhaps the Great Prince of Moscow wanted to play the card of succession once powerful state why and put to print a character familiar to others "Tatar khanate", formed after the collapse of the Horde.

There is another version - the alchemical. Alchemists headed eagle symbol of the Philosopher's Stone, as well as the process to obtain it himself, which is called the Magnum Opus, or "Great Work." Since the court of John III had a lot of foreigners, it is likely that some of them practiced alchemical experiments. For example, doctors, pharmacists, which are known at the time the polls were keen give Philosophical stone. Of them could learn from Moscow Tsar "magic symbol" as a personal seal. I must say that at the end of the XV century the use of the double-headed eagle was a fashionable trend in the Old World. Perhaps John III of, "podglyadev" ornithological sign as a print in any foreign agreement, decided to follow the trend.

Bear

The main characters in the history of Russia

Another animalistic symbol of Russia, except the double-headed eagle became the bear. Why did this happen? For centuries, the roads of Russia traveled gang with manual bears, able to dance, tumbling and even begging. Bear fun actually were the then Russian pop culture.

According to various accounts, in Moscow, Ivan the Terrible to 100 people accounted for about one Bruins. Nobles and wealthy merchants, usually held in their wards and Terem at least one bear, so to speak, "for the soul". Going into any crowded tavern of the time, you're sure to have seen a bear. And, at times sitting with hands-free company and drinking brandy. Particularly worth mentioning is the "bear fun" king John IV. "Calling" bears as executioners was popular in Russia at the time of the reign of Ivan the Terrible has no less than five centuries.

In the Russian tradition, bear, unlike the dog, it is considered a clean animal. According wonderful qualities attributed to him, he can not only warn of the presence of human evil forces, but also to act as the Lord's punishment of unrepentant sinners. According to popular notions, the bear could attack humans and eat it only with the permission of God as a punishment for sin. Thus, giving the disgraced at the mercy of the bears, the king took into account their ability to act as a "disinterested judges."

However, this does not explain why the bear has become a symbol of Russia. Why bears became known as Russian? Definitely not, because in Russia a foreigner can easily see in the dancing bear. For example, in India by city walked the elephants, but the British and it never occurred to the Indians to compare with the elephants. Perhaps supply Russian totem just came from our side. As is known, the first began to compare themselves with bears Norman squads in the early Kievan Rus. However, the self "Russian Bear" appeared much later. And it was probably not due to the flattering comparison with the powerful beast on the part of the force, and on a completely different reason. It was believed that a person who has won a bear in the fight, his strength goes. A Russian man is not only able to subdue the bear kingdom, but also tame bear.

The five-pointed star of

The main characters in the history of Russia

The five-pointed star also came to Russia from abroad. At the end of XVIII - early XIX century in the French army were five-pointed stars on the epaulettes and headgear of officers and generals, that determined their rank. This tradition dates back to ancient Rome, where the five-pointed star was the symbol of the god of war - Mars - and means lily from which it was born.

In 1827, Russian Emperor Nicholas I took over the French experience and introduced the stars on the epaulettes of officers and generals of the Russian army. We are talking about the forged gold stars. 27 years later, in 1854, the emperor imposed in the Russian army shoulder straps and embroidered with stars on them.

After the February Revolution, the royal insignia in the army were abolished. April 21, 1917 order of the fleet and the Navy Department number 150 Military and Naval Minister of the Provisional Government of Alexander Guchkov straps were replaced Sleeve marks differences and the new badge was introduced. She pointed star was placed on the socket with the anchor.

Like any heraldic symbol, the red star army had its interpretation. In the early years of the Red Army under it meant unity of the world proletariat in all five continents of the Earth: all five stars - five continents of the planet. Red - the color of the proletarian revolution, he had to combine all five continents single purpose and a single start.

In the later period, the red star was interpreted as a symbol of soldiers, standing guard over the peaceful labor, protecting workers from famine, war, poverty and slavery. Why is a symbol of Soviet power was the five-pointed star is not known, but it is known that lobbied for this character Leon Trotsky. With the approval of a five-pointed star of the Order of Narkomvoena number 321 of May 7, 1918, she received the name "Mars star with hammer and plow." The order also means that the mark "has the status of individuals in the service of the Red Army." Seriously addicted to spirituality, Leon Trotsky knew that the star, pentagram, has a very powerful energy potential and is one of the most powerful symbols.

The symbol of the new state could easily become a swastika, whose cult was very strong in Russia at the beginning of the XX century. The swastika was depicted on the "Kerensky notes", swastikas painted on the wall of the Ipatiev House Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna before being shot, but almost the sole decision of Trotsky, the Bolsheviks decided on a five-pointed star. The history of the XX century still show that the "star" stronger "swastika" ... The stars shone, and over the Kremlin, replacing the two-headed eagles.

Hammer and Sickle

The main characters in the history of Russia

Hammer and sickle - the most famous symbol of the Soviet Union. Individually and the hammer and sickle was used in heraldry long before the birth of the Soviet Union. Hammer was one of glanvyh simovlov labor movement in Europe in the middle of the XIX century, later borrowed his Russian revolutionaries. Sickle even before the revolution was depicted on the arms of many cities as one of the main agricultural implements.

The author of the hammer and sickle as a single character became an artist Eugene Kamzolkin. He worked on the poster for the celebration of the Day of Solidarity of Workers in 1918. The idea came to the artist spontaneously. The inception of the character was so described by Sergei Gerasimov, the author of the famous painting "Partisan's Mother":

"Standing next to me Kamzolkin Eugene thoughtfully, he said:

- What if we try this symbolism? - At the same time, he began to walk on the canvas. - That's the way to portray the sickle - it is the peasants, and in the hammer - this will be the working class. "

The hammer and sickle on the same day sent from Zamoskvorechye Moscow City Council, and there rejected all the other sketches: a hammer with an anvil, a plow with a sword, scythe with a wrench. Further, the symbol was changed to the State Emblem of the Soviet Union, and the artist's name was forgotten for many years. Only remembered about it only after the war. Eugene Kamzolkin lived a quiet life in Pushkino, and did not claim to royalties for such a quoted character.

The coat of arms of the USSR

The main characters in the history of Russia

Soviet Union was created as a super-state. Formally, for each of the republics of the Union according to the Constitution retained the right to secede from the Soviet Union, they are also able to independently engage in diplomatic relations with foreign states. The spirit of internationalism and openness was permeated and the main symbol of the state of the USSR. First State emblem of the USSR was approved by the Central Executive Committee of the USSR July 6, 1923. His description was enshrined in the Constitution of the USSR in 1924.

In the years 1923-1936 the slogan "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" Was written in 6 languages ​​(according to the number of four languages ​​of the Union Republics (Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Armenian, Georgian, Azerbaijani), formed in 1922, USSR); Further, in accordance with the amount of the Allied Republics changed and the number of red transfer ribbons with slogan on the arms. In 1937-1946 years - the 11 bands in the years 1946-1956 - 16, 1956 - 15.

Today, the Soviet coat of arms and other communist symbols banned in some European countries. In Germany, for example, prohibited symbols of the Communist Party of Germany, which existed from 1948 to 1968-th years in Germany. At the moment, the communist symbols banned in Georgia, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. The ban was lifted in Moldova in 2013 as unconstitutional.