Prohibition of internal combustion engines: all the details

In 2050, many countries want to stop the sale of gasoline and diesel vehicles. Whether humanity will be able to transfer to electric vehicles?

Prohibition of internal combustion engines: all the details

In Paris, at the World Conference COP21 climate pursued by the United Nations, suddenly it sounded loud statement: United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway, as well as several US states after 2050 are ready to "prohibit the use and sale of cars on the combustible fuel." That's how the piston engine, which faithfully serves the second century in a row, set a date of death.

On what then will ride mankind? Vehicles of the future - it's electric cars, which are still surrounded by many myths. We have gathered the most popular speculation regarding electric vehicles, and interviewing experts on COP21, have tried to understand that this is true, and that - no. And because the company is a partner ekosammita Nissan, as an example, in many cases, is elektrohetchbek Leaf, has recently gone through an update.

For electric vehicles do not have enough electricity to

New generation capacity are needed. For example, in the US, according to the calculations of an independent agency the EIA, if the entire fleet of 250 million cars today translate to electric, the night (during the so-called failure load) enough energy to charge 79% of cars. And in the afternoon? Day decline of energy also exists: a total of "free energy" will last for the same 79% of cars, it is important that the car came to charging no where else, but in the necessary hours. This problem is solved for a smartphone application that will tell the optimal time for "refueling" electricity.

Prohibition of internal combustion engines: all the details

In Europe - is another problem. In Denmark, Norway and many other countries where the development of alternative energy, the problem is not the deficit, and the generation of excess! So that a substantial part of the European fleet now profitable to transfer to electric. Moreover, because of the energy-efficient technologies electricity consumption worldwide is decreasing, and power remain - in the future, these "free kilowatts" and will charge the electric battery.

Electric vehicles charged "for ages"

Prohibition of internal combustion engines: all the details

According to the estimations of SAP, the manufacturer of the industrial software, the optimum ratio of all types of charging stations ( "slow" and "fast") and an electric vehicle fleet must be 2, 5: 1. With regard to the stations CHAdeMO (marked on the map), then all over the world they are now about 9800: 5500 in Japan and 2900 in Europe, and the rest - in the US

In the so-called "slow charging" Nissan Leaf battery "filled" for 4-8 hours (depending on the current strength). But the "fast charge" DC CHAdeMO station through connector allows you to "fill" the battery by 80% in just half an hour, and in the short term, the charging time will be reduced to 15 minutes. Thus, the duration of the "refueling" depends on the infrastructure, so the number of charging stations around the world are constantly growing and in just 4 years increased from 150 to 9800 units.

Electricity - "dirty" energy source

In the world of 60% of all electricity is generated by thermal power plants - to get a "clean" electricity, you need to burn "dirty" coal, oil or gas ... But! Firstly, when translated to electric vehicles will be a localization of the harmful impact on the environment - the city will be able to breathe clean air, and emissions of all focus on the areas around the power station. Secondly, even the most archaic CHP throw (in terms of kilometer) much less carbon dioxide than the internal combustion engine: CHAdeMO Association says that "in the circle" electric car is three times more environmentally friendly (!).

Prohibition of internal combustion engines: all the details

other, even if we assume that Western environmentalists engaged by the authorities and wishful thinking, there is one hard contestable argument. Power engineering liquid fuel supply are the same companies that motorists, but moreover an electric kilometer run in practice is worth at least three times smaller than comparable gasoline power machines (talk about it separately) - therefore, emits far less nasty.

Lithium-ion batteries are too short-lived

Let's start from afar. In many countries, electricity tariffs depending on time of day, so it is logical to buy energy at night and use the - day. To accumulate energy and serve has run down batteries! So, Nissan, supported by Eaton brings to the market a product "Vehicle-to-Grid" - the buffer station, which extends battery life up to 25 years of age: 10-12 years, battery electric vehicle is on, losing 20% ​​of its capacity, and the remaining works buffer.

Electricity - is unprofitable

Take a couple of hatches brand Nissan - electric Leaf (109 hp..) And gasoline "Tiida" (117 hp..). In the combined cycle for electric NEDC procedure consumes 15 kWh / 100 km, so that the most expensive tariff 5 Moscow, rub for 58 "kW" value will be 84 kilometers run penny. For petrol car with an average fuel consumption of 6, 4 l / 100 km and the price of a liter of "ninety-five" 36, 78 rubles kilometer will cost as much as 2, 35! Net benefit? Alas, electric cars themselves are quite expensive in Germany for Leaf asking 23,000 euros and petrol Pulsar (similar to our "Tiida") can be purchased for 18 thousand.

Prohibition of internal combustion engines: all the details

In many countries, the difference is now compensate for different kinds of subsidies - for example, in France, if you pass a diesel car older than 14 years, you can get 10 000 euros discount on the electric car. But! As experts predict, if the environmental regulations continue to tighten, 2020 petrol and diesel cars will cost as much as a "train". By the way, the most expensive component of electric vehicle traction battery is: for each "kilowatt" its capacity has to pay 150-200 euros, so the "battery" basic version "Leaf" to 24 kWh costs about 4 500-5 000 euros.

Trucks will not be able to move to electric

Prohibition of internal combustion engines: all the details

Scania starts elektrogruzovikov tests, which are a hybrid trains and trolley: behind the cab mounted pantograph, through which will generate electricity not only the electric motor, but also the battery pack outside the electrified section of road train will move on stored energy batteries, and then all switched to diesel engine

Haul tractors, most of the life which passes at cruising speeds, switching to battery is not threatened: pure electric road train will cost 150-200 thousand euros more expensive than conventional diesel, and the range for a 12-ton crane with current technologies will be no more ... 100 km. But to transfer commercial vehicles to electric, you can! While the most appropriate idea of ​​the engineers seem trolleyvozy - trucks equipped with pantographs, the machine could be powered trolley, stretched over the road from the wires.

Electric vehicles are not suitable for long trips and cold climates

In the world of 90% of drivers daily pass no more than 90 km! But you must admit: that is the opportunity to drive 300 km to be. That's just the efficiency of electricity transmission, which is for a bunch of "battery-electric", with increasing speed falls - at 90 km / h Leaf consumes 20 kWh ... problem solved. Firstly, already have the technology to increase the battery capacity at constant size. Second, the mass appearance of stations "fast charging" eliminates a modest reserve.

Prohibition of internal combustion engines: all the details

Regarding the cold, the electric vehicles can travel at temperatures up to -30 ° C. However, included in the maximum "stove" will consume 5-6 kWh, dramatically reducing the "long range" cars ... However, we just have to change their habits: warm or cool the interior will have to travel until the machine is powered on home network - then power on "climate" will need much less, just to maintain the temperature. The second drawback - if the "minus" lithium-ion battery gives less willing to energy - corrected by the battery heating.