History tank helmet

• History tank helmet

One of the most recognizable elements of military uniforms is a tank driver tank helmet, gradually turned into a headset. These hats always perform the same function: protecting the tank driver from injuries and connectivity, but historically armored helmets had a fairly strong design and visual differences. Moreover, the prototype of the first armored helmets in various countries were the completely different hats.

History tank helmet

The first tanks appeared on the battlefield but in the course of the First World War. It is worth noting that these iron monsters are not distinguished special manufacturability, and only for the comfort of the work of members of their crews do not have to even speak. Service was the first tank, to say the least, uncomfortable. Distress, the exhaust gases, the heat from the engine, the smell of fuel, violent shaking while driving - these are just a small list of what had to face the first tankers.

In case of contact with the tank shell crew could easily lose vision due to small fragments and molten metal splashes. A normal household injury, hitting his head at an awkward movement, it was possible to get in the tank and stand still. Since formidable fighting machines appeared on the battlefield in the midst of war, special uniforms for the tank crews simply did not exist. Initially they supplied what was at hand. In England, for tankers specially upgraded an existing infantry helmet Mk.I, which because of its shape known to the common people as the "bowl."

This helmet was made from alloy steel and the manganese, for this reason, the first English helmets practically magnets, while they have only one size. The thickness of the steel used was 0, 9 mm, weight helmet Mk.I - 950 grams. In the helmet liner was installed which was made from waxed fabrics under which was attached a rope net are designed to regulate the size of liner. Sam liner was attached by one of riveting, which was located in the central part of the helmet dome. To the inner side of the dome was attached antiseptic cotton lining, which was intended to absorb perspiration. Helmet Mk.I Cruise 2

History tank helmet

The original helmets painted in khaki, sometimes already in the field was applied to it camouflage, helmets later soldiers auxiliary parts began to be painted in dark blue or black. Since 1916, when stained with the ink added sand to remove the desired gloss is not good.

In June 1916, a specially created under the Department of the supply of military eye protection committee, created a new version of the helmet 1 Cruise (Cruise I), which was named in honor of the captain of the Committee Richard Cruz. A feature of this helmet has become thick Chain mask with fine mesh. The mask was attached to the helmet at a special wire bow. To fix it with the chain attached either to podborodnomu strap, which the soldiers in this case had to throw at his head, or the back of the helmet of the fields. Initially, the helmet was developed for the needs of trench warfare, they also had to arm signalers and gunners, but the helmet was useful and the first tankers.

In 1917 it was released an improved version of the helmet, called Cruz 2. It supplemented the chain mail mask special lever-nanosnikom. Small-looking item performs two functions: in the firing position the nanosnik prevent skin contact tank driver with the metal, and during the gas attack, or if the inside of the tank becomes just can not breathe because of the smoke and gunpowder burning, combat vehicle crew donned gas masks and using this lever-nanosnika fixed the chain mail mask on the outside of the helmet.

In France, to develop a tank helmet also started on the basis of the normal infantry models, based on an infantry helmet of the sample in 1915 Auguste Louis Adrian system. It is worth noting that Adrina helmet has become one of the most famous symbols of the entire First World War. It is widely used not only in the French army, but also in dozens of other countries, which included it in the equipment of his soldiers, and Russia was among the countries. This helmet is made of steel sheet thickness 0, 7 mm, and its weight was typically 700-800 grams, varying depending on the size, which was three, as opposed to only English helmet size Mk.I. Tank helmet Adriana 1917 sample year

History tank helmet

The decision to develop a helmet directly to tankers was taken by Adrian in September 1917. While working on a new version of his helmet, he replaced the front visor, securing his place thick shockproof cushion, which was made of a dark skin. Also on the helmet logo appears Assault Artillery (since October 1917 knight's helmet type armet, which was imposed on crossed cannon barrels). Podborodny belt thick podshlemny shock absorber and spade podtuleynik were made of brown leather. These helmets were painted in dark blue - "the color of the horizon."

Complete with tank helmet 1917 sample Adrian year, which was not picked up, were the chauffeurs or aviation glasses. However, some of the tankers in the fight for the protection of persons cling to the helmet special leather or steel mask with glasses-shutters and hanging chain mail, "beard", these masks French tankers World War I borrowed from the Marines. In the infantry they are quite often used by observers in the trenches.

The masks were designed to protect the tank from a small bullet fragments, splits the inside of the armor and lead spray. This was necessary, as the German infantry with the start of the use of steel monster on the battlefield began to concentrate rifle and machine-gun fire on the open viewing slits tanks. For this reason, wounded face and eye injuries accounted for a significant percentage of the members of tank crews. At the same time, and the British and French tankers during the First World War, often went into battle wearing gas masks, regardless of the enemy gas attack carried out or not.

History tank helmet

In our country, to find a man who would not know how to look tankman helmet today is practically impossible, if we are not talking about small children. On why for tank helmet in the Soviet Union was chosen so the silhouette and shape, it is difficult to say. We only know that the familiar tank helmet appeared in 1934, when he suffered before the Second World War a number of upgrades. War Soviet tankers met in a helmet in 1938 sample year. Radio equipment, aircraft type helmet began to be equipped only in late 1942, after which it was renamed and headset, and the common people a new version of a tank helmet was nicknamed "talking hat". According to specifications in 1938 it provided several options for helmets Soviet tank - leather, tarpaulin covered, from canvas upper and fur. Leather Helmet tankman sewn black Chevrette, it was used as a lining dark blue bike. From the forehead to the back of the head on the helmet are three rollers that act as shock absorbers, positioned in front of the nalobnik. From the sides of the helmet in place, or a roller, which is sewn in the middle, or three, arranged like a fan. Mandatory element of Soviet tank helmet were valves, which were designed to protect the tank driver's ears.

All beads or ribs filled with horsehair, in later models of helmets used for this purpose technical fibers. Already in the years of the Great Patriotic War in the enlarged sinuses and special pockets helmet valves began placing radio equipment (oval cup throat microphones and telephones, as well as patch cords). Soviet headset is actually virtually the entire Soviet military machine were different kind of conservatism, the reason for the almost 80 years of its existence tank helmet has not undergone any significant changes.

Tank Red Army helmet, model 1936

History tank helmet History tank helmet

In the United States on the creation of its own tank helmet thinking only in 1938. According to the statement he had to be light and strong at the same time, have good ventilation, easy to remove and put on. He also had to be necessarily adapted to accommodate radio headphones. The winner of the competition to create a tank helmet was the company Rawlings Manufacturing Corporation, which introduced in 1940 its development, the designation M1938. In this case, a protective headgear used athletes playing college football was used as the basis of a tank helmet. The first American tank helmet was made of compressed chemical fiber, for ventilating it had 10 holes. Lining the leather flaps to protect the ears and the so-called "rear wing", which is attached to the helmet, and was intended to protect the back of the head tank driver, made of the same material. The side wings helmet M1938 are provided with openings for the headphone unit. Located inside the helmet liner which was a 4-lobe of the skin, connected at the top by means of a cord. This helmet does not protect tank driver from bullets and shrapnel, but are easy to design, weighed only about 500 grams. When you exit the tank tanker could easily put on top of a tank helmet standard American steel helmet M1.

Tank helmet M1938

History tank helmet

The first batches of these helmets were in the US Army by the end of 1941 and showed itself at its best. For this reason, the US government has made a decision about their mass production. By the end of the war on the release of these "freaks polusportivny" helmet apparently was not the most attractive, labored at least 4 large corporation. Helmet was very popular among the tankers, and even exported to Australia, Britain, China and Israel. American tank crews used the helmet until the beginning of the war in Vietnam.

US tankers (frame of the movie "Anger")

History tank helmet

The German tank crews during the First World War differed little from their English or French counterparts. To protect the head, they used a leather helmet with protective shock-absorbing cushions, which resembled those already wearing aviators, or simplified versions that are shaped like helmets British marines. In order to protect your face, they used masks made of metal and leather with slits for eyes, which are usually put on top "glasses-canned." Also, this mask can be fixed Chain beard, which was supposed to protect against debris area tankman neck. In this garb German tanker was a very intimidating sight. Curiously, during the World War II German tank crews did not use helmets. In this case, a protective headgear, created before the war, they had, in fact, representing the ordinary takes. German tank helmet consisted of two parts: a large beret and a soft liner that is directly and clung to his head. Takes over the downed wore a felt liner on the oilcloth-lined and closely fitted to the liner. Balaclava itself was upholstered with woolen cloth black.

German tank crews on the background of the tank "Tiger"

History tank helmet

Even during the campaign in Poland, the head of the German tank was covered with a field caps. The reason for the refusal of the German helmet is still the subject of fierce debate, both among experts and amateurs. According to one version of the pre-war German tank helmets simply do not docked with the radio equipment to which very seriously consider the German tank units from the beginning of the Second World War. According to another version, the German tanks were quite spacious and comfortable, so head protection is not required.

Anyway, for the entire period of the war in Panzerwaffe was never introduced a special headdress, which the tankers would wear it in the tank. There is evidence that the development of a tank helmet was carried out in Germany in 1940, but further experimental samples did not get.

An interesting and curious is the fact that in some Soviet films, which were devoted to the events of the Great Patriotic War, the German tank crews are depicted in armored helmets, with every film they are different. One of the most striking examples was the four-part film "Blockade". Because of ignorance or lack of understanding how to manage a formidable fighting machine without the protection of the head, the entire film is the German tank crews sported helmet-like Italian, which were used during the war allies of the Nazis: Italians, Romanians, Hungarians. Themselves these helmets from the movie, apparently, were a fiberglass helmets for motor sports activities, painted black. History tank helmet German tank commander in the film "Blockade" or when the military advisers sleep.

History tank helmet

If we talk about the Italian armored helmets, by the beginning of 1930, tankers were protecting this country flight helmet. However, in 1935 the army entered a new helmet, designated M1935. The dome of the helmet was made of fibers and top upholstered with leather. Fields helmet were laid special roller, which was filled with technical cotton wool roll was to serve as an impact absorbing force. Unlike many other armored helmets of those years, the Italian helmet no wings on the sides and rear. Instead, they present a rectangular piece of leather which was sewn to the helmet on coat type. Eyes Italian tankers are usually covered by aviation glasses.

Italian armored helmet is characterized by simplicity of its design and technological solutions, however, has proven itself quite well. Moreover, a tank helmet M1935 was one of the few, who later moved from the tank and other combat arms. For example, in the Italian army was considered a normal practice, when the armored helmets were fitted with airborne units. Later, as his hat and started wearing police motochastey.

This tank helmet almost unchanged continued to serve the Italian military until the 1960s. During this time, he could serve as a prototype for the creation of armor helmets in several European countries. For example, the helmet in Hungary modified by replacing the side vents for fastening to means of communication.

History tank helmet

Italian tankers during the Second World War

History tank helmet

The Japanese tank helmet in 1938, the sample was unusual, but probably looked better than a lot of Japanese tanks that otherwise how absurd is difficult to call. This tank was a cork helmet hemispherical frame, which was covered with a cotton cloth on top of brown. Cloth helmet cover formed of six triangular flaps which are sewn together. At the top of the dome where the converged tissue grafts, there was a single vent. This tank helmet, as well as the US, reminded about the sport, providing a semblance of militarized "jockey helmet." In front of the bottom of the helmet on the sewn fabric cockade pentagonal housed tissue pentagonal star.

Japanese tank helmet

History tank helmet

Japanese tankers near their tanks

History tank helmet

On the head tank driver hat held by a leather chin strap and two valves, which can be mounted radio communications. Despite the simplicity of its appearance, the interior of the helmet of the Japanese were very interesting and were quite effective, evenly distributing the impact energy. Eight-petal sectors of leather, four on each side, in the center connected with each other by means of lacing. The depth of the head in the helmet position can be adjusted with a cord that is passed through the hole sectors. Like other armored helmets, World War II, he was unable to protect its wearer from bullets or fragments, while the Japanese helmet and constructively missing protection of the ears and neck.