Polish car industry era of socialism
Almost every country in Eastern Europe was building its bright future with the participation of the Soviet comrades. The post-war Poland was no exception. After all, a country of this size and with so many people could not exist without their own car industry, only due to the supply of imported cars. And he she appeared.
And quite decent, manufactures and passenger cars of different colors, and minibuses with vans and trucks. In short, during the development of socialism, the Poles were the automotive industry, the needs and the national economy, and ordinary citizens Poland.
(FSO) Fabryka Samochodow Osobowych S.A
The most well-known manufacturer in Poland at that time was a Warsaw factory of cars FSO. An interesting detail: practically the entire existence of the plant produced license variations on the theme of cars from other countries!
It began the history of the company in 1951. And once a "license": the first car under the brand became the FSO Warszawa - Polish version of the Soviet "Victory" GAZ M-20, and later releases significantly different both technically (there was upper- and not nizhneklapannym motor), and body type. In contrast to the "Victory" with a single body type fastback, and Warsaw were sedans and universals, and even pickups! FSO Warszawa was produced from 1951 to 1973, and from 1956 they made entirely of Polish components and only factory FSO did little more than 250 000 vehicles, even more than in the Soviet source.
The following model has been self-development of the Poles. Syrena - it was the name of a compact machine with a progressive while front-wheel drive, which from 1955 to 1972 released on the FSO factory.
Like the USSR, the Polish company at the end of the 60s went beaten by buying the license of FIAT, but not on the model 124, and 125 minutes, which is produced in Poland since 1967. However, Fiat 125p differ from the original engine with a bottom camshaft position and four-speed transmission with shift on the steering wheel. Produced Polski Fiat 125 models right up to the "end of socialism", that is, until 1991 most of the year.
In parallel with the 125-m (and based on it) since 1978. FSO begins production of a fundamentally new model - Polonez. This rear-drive hatchback manufactured with different engine types, and even participated in the Monte Carlo Rally in 1979. Machine enjoyed good demand not only in his native Polish market, but also exported to more than a dozen countries, including the UK, Italy, Spain, Finland and the Netherlands. Moreover, even in Egypt, assembly plant Polonaise was built! However, in the late nineties, the demand for long-living car plummeted in 2002. Polonaise release stopped.
In 1996, the enterprise appeared a foreign owner: bought a controlling stake in the company Daewoo, whereby the plant was renamed Daewoo-FSO Motor. At the enterprise there is a major upgrade, and the model number appear familiar to us Daewoo cars with the prefix FSO - Lanos, Nubira, Espero, Tico, Tacuma, Leganza. However, at the beginning of the new millennium, he becomes a bankrupt Korean owner, so that the factory into the hands of "parent" of the Daewoo - the concern General Motors, and gets the name of GM DAT. The name Daewoo is removed, and the company gets back its own trademark.
But not for long music play: In turn, in 2005 the Americans sold the controlling stake in FSO Ukrainian corporation "UkrAvto." Following the extension of the license for Lanos and Matiz release in Poland of production continues and the share UkrAuto reaches 84% of the shares. Thus the Ukrainian group, in fact, becomes the main owner of the FSO. This has allowed the Ukrainians to buy a license for production Aveo and three- and five-door Lanos, and especially for the FSO and GM set up a joint venture. Nevertheless, the license for Aveo production expired in early 2011 and was not renewed.
Apparently, both parties to produce cars already lost its former interest in Poland as a site to produce cars Daewoo / Chevrolet. Especially that "UkrAvto" full swing by the time produced Lanos and Aveo T250 in their homeland, in Zaporizhia. Thus, the fate of the company and its employees was predetermined: already after a couple of months 1 800 workers were laid off and land FSO for sale. By the end of 2011 the company buildings were demolished and the test track sold.
FSM (Fabryka Samochodow Malolitrazowych)
In 1971, on the basis of "Polmo" plant for the production of water pumps in Bielsko-Biala was created enterprise FSM - plant of small cars. It preceded this event an agreement between the enterprise and concern FSO Fiat.
From 1972 to 1983 the factory produced FSM already familiar Syrena cars, and in the summer of 1973 the production of the Polish version of Fiat 126, called Polski Fiat 126p was established under license. In 1975, in order to expand production and increase production volumes of cars in Tychy it was built a new plant for the production of 126-x, and Bielsko-Biala left engine production.
FSM company in 1991 the company was privatized and renamed Fiat Fiat Auto Poland, and since 1992 they started to produce Fiats - for example, the successor to the 126 th called Cinquecento. However, Fiat 126p produced FSM right up to October 2000, which allowed him to become the most massive car in Poland - Tychy and Bielsko-Biala for 27 years, was released on 3, 3 million 126-x.
FSD (Fabryka Samochodow Dostawczych)
In 1951, the former furniture factory in the city of Nysa began to produce automotive bodies, and in 1957th venture ZSD completely passed to manufacture vans development of the same Warsaw FSO plant. Nysa N57 has been widely standardized with the "Warsaw" by machines, as other suitable "platform" for the minibus in Poland simply did not exist.
In 1958, the company became known as Fabryka Samochodow Dostawczych (plant delivery truck), which started the production of N58 model. Then, in each subsequent year, the model has undergone some changes and an appropriate index - N59M, N60T, N61, N63, etc. By the way, the purpose and the type of car were "sewn up" in a letter designation: F - basic van;.. T - Utility embodiment; C - refrigerator; R - pick-up double cabin; M - vehicle; S - Sanitary; W - military or police; CA - tourism.
The most famous among us "Nysoy" is a fun-looking model 521 sample in 1968 with a body polukapotnoy layout. It Nysa 521/522 was the most popular model of the plant and exported to the Soviet Union, Hungary, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Cambodia, Turkey, Vietnam, Cuba, Finland and other countries. Production volumes in good seventies reached 18,000 copies a year!
During the flowering followed by a decline. Already in the mid-volume production of vans at the plant FSD fell sharply as outdated minibus no longer in demand. In the nineties, instead of 10-12 thousand "Nys" in the year began to produce only a few thousand, and by 1994 th annual production fell to 1 800 units, which deprived the enterprise profitability. In early 1994, the latest Nysa, and in 1996 the factory with FSO acquired the Korean company Daewoo has been collected on the FSD.
FSC (Fabryka Samochodow Ciezarowych)
In 1951, the newly formed company "Factory Truck" in Lublin have launched a licensed copy of the Soviet truck GAZ-51. But he brought fame Lublin enterprise: in 1956, the plant began to work on the light commercial vehicle.
Production of vans, trucks and pick-ups under the trade name Zuk ( "Beetle") began in 1959, and was the first all-metal pickup A03 carrying capacity of 900 kg, which is also based on the units of the same in Warsaw, ie GAZ M-20. In the early seventies the front somewhat modified, and in 1975 the car received index "B" indicating the new S21 overhead valve engine, which is installed on the remaining Polish cars.
As Nysa, Lublin beetles are actively exported to many countries - mainly consisting in Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance). In 1993, Zhukov stopped production, but their assembly had planned to settle in ... Russia! However, on "installation" party in the 100 cars did not get.
In 1993-1995 at the factory by FSC CKD were collected 3500 cars Peugeot 405, but in June 1995, the company became part of the Daewoo Corporation and received a new name - Daewoo Motor Polska. Despite the timid attempts to release Lublin and Honker SUVs own cars, the plant is, in fact, turned into the assembly area - for example, Korean SsangYong Musso and Korando. And it ended up bankrupt Daewoo Motor Polska in 2001 ...
In the Polish People's Republic produces not only passenger cars: in the workshops of the former steel plant in Starachowice was launched production of commercial vehicles old structures of the Polish engineer Jana Werner. Postwar Star basically used the "platform" of pre-war prototype truck PZInz-713.
Firstborn was the model A20 carrying capacity of 3, 5 tons, which was equipped with a six-cylinder engine capacity of 85 liters. from. In 1951, the plant was named after Dzerzhinsky (!). In the future production range complemented the truck tractor, dump truck, as well as special vehicles. In 1954 it started the production of the model 21, with carrying capacity of 4 tons, and in the 1958th - the release of an improved Star-25 model.
The model is offered with a long and a short base, as well as in a variety of designs -.. Van, tank, fire truck, truck, crane, etc. In 1963, the truck was 5, 6-liter diesel engine capacity of 100 liters. s., which became the basis for vosmitonnyh cars 6x4 (A83) and 6x2 (A88). In addition, in 1958 the plant began production of 2, 5-ton vehicles Star-66 6x6.
In 1968, started production of five-ton old with the new cabin, which was later used on the most famous and "LP" 200 series models differ as a load-carrying capacity (6 tons), and power unit - new six-cylinder diesel S359 of 6, 8 liters and 150 liters. from. Over time, the old factory has become a real automaker, which included the five companies, employing 25,000 staff. Star was interested in the fact that he is fully released for all parts of its trucks, and did not succumb to the temptation to buy some foreign license.
In 1991 the plant became a joint stock company, but, in fact, remained in state ownership, as its sole shareholder was the State itself.
Back in the mid-eighties, it began production of a fundamentally new model of Star-742 load-carrying capacity 3, 5 tons. Updated and a series of 200, instead of the family which started the production of "1142". However, in the nineties the company products have become uncompetitive even on the domestic market. This led to the fact that the volume of production fell by almost half - to 1 700 cars, and the number of active employees dropped to 900 people.
It is for this reason that in 1998 "Star" was forced to sign a cooperation agreement with the German company MAN, which enabled Poles to use more advanced German units. Honker SUVs and Star trucks produced so far, but ... we are talking about military products.
Polskie Autobusy (Jelcz and Autosan)
The small town of Jelcz-Laskowice is interesting in that it produced buses, trolley buses and trucks under the brand licensing and Jelcz buses Berliet. In addition to production models, the factory engaged in the development of experimental buses - for example, 042 "Odra" with two front steering axles, as well as the city bus model 039, designed in cooperation with Skoda and became the prototype of the Czech Karosa bus.
In the nineties, the company switched to a modular scheme of bus production, which allowed to increase sharply model line. However, competitors are not asleep and are also activated: Polish subsidiaries Volvo and Scania began to slowly press "elders" of the Polish bus market, offering an excellent alternative. That is why in 2008, and even during the global economic crisis, Jelcz was forced to stop production.
Polish car industry could not survive in the market conditions. Not even helped foreign partners-investors, who, moreover, had its own financial problems. That is why the majority of motorists at the phrase "polish the car," recalls some Polonez or "Maluh" model 126r of the socialist period, and not the Daewoo Lanos.
Even the Poles chose used, but the "thoroughbred" cars from the neighboring German cars of its own production. This is understandable: open borders, geographical proximity and developed markets, albeit not so much, but a higher standard of living than in Russia ... In Polish avtopromyshlennikom had no chance.