Kungur Ice Cave
• Kungur Ice Cave
Kungur Ice Cave has been known since the XVII century. According to legend, the first Russian settlers took refuge in a cave Kungur from the raids of the Tatars and Bashkirs. The study of the cave began with 1703, when the historian and cartographer Remezov first plan of the cave was made.
Photos and text by Mikhail Mishaynika
Later, visit the caves Russian historian and statesman Basil Tatishchev wrote: "Near the town of Kungur in Sylva River is a cave under the great earth, in a stone ... Inside onaya essence of places such lengthy supposedly great chamber ... and other uskie and barely passable."
The first "keeper" of the cave became AG Khlebnikov, vodivshy from 1914 to 1951 and is engaged in research tour of the cave.
Kungur cave study involved hospital UC USSR. The underground passages weather and gauging stations were organized. These data allowed us to calculate the heat transfer caves, the evaporation and condensation.
The length of tunnels in Kungurskaya ice cave is 5700 meters, but only 1500 meters equipped for tourist visits. The rest of the stroke is narrow manholes with a large number of clay.
Kungur cave like any other cave constantly "growing" - it collapses occur, displacement and washouts. For example, in 1974 a group of cavers was imprisoned in the depths of the cave because of the great collapse of limestone.
1. When you log in Kungur ice cave set its detailed plan indicating the three tour routes. Routes are painted on time, so we had to wait some time before the start of the tour.
2. A little away is the entrance to the Old Kungur cave. The original entrance was small and constantly falls off or overgrown ice. Professor M. Ya Kittary in 1848 wrote: "Guides for 6:00 cut down the ice closed the entrance to the cave. Wade through the pipe was very difficult. But someone got the idea to tie the rope to the end of a long splint and weed out on it through the passage of each turn ... ".
3. In 1937, to the XVII International Geological Congress miners had passed a new 40-meter tunnel.
4. The tunnel goes to the grotto "Diamond". Total number of caves in the cave is 48.
5. The roof and walls of the grotto are covered with large crystals of ice, making the grotto got its name.
6. even in summer temperature in the cave is -2 ° C.
7. A small hole in the The Old entrance to the cave.
8. The exposed walls thick multi-year ice. Initially, this passage has a small height and up to the present size was expanded only in the 1940s.
Next Grotto - "Polar". It is particularly rife with large ice crystals.
9. Ice crystals are formed by the incoming warm air. In fact, these two caves and attractive Kungur cave. Others are conventional caves karst cavities natural origin.
10. The excursion path to the grotto "Dante". The trail is well lit and concreted.
11. Figure bat in a cave "Dante". In this cave also stored negative temperature.
12. Fork in the grotto "West" and the grotto "Crusade".
13. We go to the grotto "Crusade". According to the legend in the grotto was a wooden cross, near which lived a hermit. At different times, in the grotto was found bast and iron core. Modern cross.
14. With the roof hanging ice stalactites. On this grotto goes dew point, so the further into the cave becomes noticeably warmer than +5 ° C.
15. Next Grotto - Ruins. It is a fairly large cavity almost completely littered with boulders. Ropa skirts grotto and tortuosity called "Naughty Turns." The passage was enlarged by blasting and is equipped with steps and handrails.
16. To the right is a cavity "Dragon's Mouth."
17. The backlight in the grotto "Ruins".
18. The Grotto "Sculpture". In this grotto there are several piles of boulders that resemble different animals (turtle, crocodile, duck).
20. The Grotto "Coral" is named after the image of him on the walls of the structure of the coral. In 1984, this grotto was arranged bar for receiving distinguished guests, is now in the cave are organized various activities.
21. Guide to the grotto "Central". And this slippery section called "Women's tears." The name comes from the legend that there is often a girl fell and received injuries.
22. A pointer to the fork moves. Left - the route with elements of extreme and laser show, to the right - the central route or the big ring.
23. The domes - the result of delamination of the roof rocks. Such avalanches occur during periods of flood and preferably in the caves. Water gradually erodes easily soluble gypsum and anhydrite, thereby forming so-called "organ pipes" - a cavity communicating with the surface. On the surface of the crater formed, and dumped in the cave clay and stones.
24. In some parts of the roof support pillar. Since the Ice Cave is constantly increasing in size, then eventually stop supporting the roof rack.
25. In order to control lighting cave equipped with shields lighting. The guide includes a light at the next station and off the previous. Prior to that, instead of boards used in the cave mine starters.
26. Then we went to the grotto "Geologists", where we waited for a laser show.
27. The laser show is a primitive spectacle, so we is not impressed.
29. The Grotto "Atlantis" with an underground lake.
30. Another underground lake is remarkable in that it held Epiphany bathing. Just Kungur cave has about 70 underground lakes. In water, the unique live crustaceans - krangoniksy Khlebnikov.
31. Groth Khlebnikovs has an area of 1300 sq. m and completely overwhelmed with boulders.
32. The Grotto "Romantics" is an underground lake.
33. The narrow passage into the grotto "Long". The walls are lined with masonry to prevent fraying. Grotto "Long" has a length of 196 meters.
34. From the grotto can be reached in the protected part of the cave. This part of the cave was discovered by staff "Gidrostroyproekta" expedition in 1935, as reported by the writing on the wall "in the course of a new one. otkrtye mainsail 5 / II -1935g ".
35. The underground lake in the cave "Long".
36. In the control there are benchmarks of the roof displacement.
37. The Grotto "Giant" has an area of 3900 square meters. m and is the largest on the tourist trail (in a reserved part of a cave it is inferior in size only to the grotto Geographers). Vault of the grotto has not yet reached a dome shape, so the collapse of the process is not yet completed.
38. Walking along the scree we reach the grotto Lukin. In the 1950s this grotto was named after the famous caver Norbert Custer. In the 1960's it was renamed the grotto Miners in tribute to the hard work of miners employed in the sinking and the strengthening of the cave. In the grotto set Christmas tree, though not showered for several years.
39. The top of the talus is decorated with a huge lump, like a huge rat. Ears clearly someone artistically placed.
40. In this tour of the Kungur cave is over and we are heading out the exit tunnel. The tunnel was performed in the years 1972-1973 and has a slowness of 109 m.
41. From the tunnel we get to the observation deck, located at an altitude of 18 meters above ground level.
General impressions from visiting the cave - not the most good. The first thing we had was the price of admission - very high for a normal cave. The guide is constantly urged the group, turning off the back light. Take pictures in such conditions was impossible. The lighting in the cave is poor. Laser show turned out to be primitive animation with the same story.