Your passport, please!
Since its inception the state sought to control its citizens or subjects. "Who? Where to? Why? "- the authorities want to know at all times, explaining the curiosity of security considerations. Particular suspicion aroused travelers of all kinds because, as you know, "decent people stay at home." For accounting and control of such persons, and was invented by a passport.
How it all began
Although the documents authorizing travel, have been known since ancient times, the word "passport" (from the Latin passare - "pass", porta - "gate" or portus - "port") and the corresponding document appeared in Europe in the late Middle Ages. The Russian passport functions performed carriageways ratification. According to the Council Code in 1649 to travel to other states was required to obtain a certificate roadway. In Moscow, these letters gave himself emperor, and in other cities - the magistrates who were to "figure out carriageways ratification without any apprehension." For violation of this order to punish section whip or death (if malicious intent).
By the way, word came under Peter I in Russian "passport". In the XVIII century, passports issued to all who wish to College of Foreign Affairs. The French Revolution a few spoiled situation: Paul I forbade young men to go abroad to study, so they're not picked up the "revolutionary contagion."
passport of Peter I in the name of Peter Mikhailov for going to the Grand Embassy. February 1697.
of the XIX century
If Europe XIX century was marked by an almost complete abolition of passports in Russia, however, everything remained the same: to travel abroad needed a passport. Get it were the representatives of all classes, including the serfs (before the abolition of serfdom in 1861). Passports issued to persons over 25 years (at the beginning of the twentieth century - 20 years), unless the purpose of the trip was not to "cure" of the disease, receiving the inheritance or "improve themselves in the arts and crafts of the highest." Wives and children also have the right to leave their husbands and parents at any age.
During the reign of Nicholas I, boys and young men aged 10-18 years could leave Russia only with the permission of the emperor. It was believed that young people at this age are especially susceptible to revolutionary ideas and can get abroad "wrong" education.
To obtain a passport was required to submit a petition to the Governor or Mayor, enclosing a certificate from the police about the absence of barriers to travel or give guarantees trustworthy person. In addition, you must have been three times to announce his intention to leave the country in the local newspaper so that all who had the debt claims to leave, they could produce. This requirement, introduced in the XVIII century, operated until near the end of the nineteenth century.
Passports were of two types: for Russian citizens, "koi ranks, their names or titles deserve the respect and confidence of the government's right to have a can", and for everyone else. The passports of the first type indicate only the title and the name of the owner, and in passports the second type - also signs it. Inscription in the passport made in Russian and German, and the fee for the issuance determined to stay abroad.
In the late 60-ies of the XIX century, the appearance of the passport has changed: now it was the same for everyone and was a book with two stamps, one of which is cut off by customs upon departure, and the other - when returning. The passport, the name and title, related to military service, as well as when and by whom it was issued. All labels were duplicated in three languages: Russian, French and German. Passport ought to be exercised within three months from the date of issuance. In those days, traveling a long time and tasteful, so passports were actually one-off: the law is not the validity of the passport, and the period of stay abroad, which is five years, but could be extended.
Cutting pass in the Russian passport.
A passport of the Russian Empire of the sample end of the XIX century. He belonged to Alexander Ivanovich Guchkov.
Land of the Soviets
The October Revolution abolished the system of internal passports, granting citizens the freedom of movement throughout the country. However, this decision was not extended to the border crossing.
Already in December 1917, it was put in place, "Instruction on the rules of the Russian entry and exit." Established its order of almost not changed compared to the pre-revolutionary. Still I needed a passport, and still had to obtain additional authorization, is not only the police and the NKVD or People's Commissariat (People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs).
Over the following years, the system was improved and gradually took on the form that will remain almost unchanged until the end of the Soviet era. In 1925 the Presidium of the USSR Central Executive Committee approved the "Regulations on the entry into the USSR and exit from the USSR", according to which the border crossing was only possible in the presence of a passport with an exit visa. Issue passports and visas set of internal affairs bodies. Passport validity is one year, but to use it should have a period of three months after receipt.
It is this passport is dedicated to the famous poem by Vladimir Mayakovsky's "The Soviet passport." While passport still does not meet the standards recommended by the League of Nations in 1920. "Book" it will be after the Second World War, and at the same time its validity will be extended to five years. In 1959, in the wake of the thaw, it was decided a truly innovative "Regulations on entry into the USSR and exit from the USSR." Now go abroad could not only by passport, but also substitute document: types of permits and certificates on the road, which is attached to a regular passport.
The passport, issued in 1929.
Cover Soviet passport in 1976.
The new "Regulations" in 1970 once again made a passport only document entitle to cross the border. Also it is the first to establish the reasons why the Soviet citizen could be refused permission to leave. In addition to very specific causes, such as the involvement of a state secret or having unfulfilled obligations, to refuse to exit and could "ensure the protection of public order, health or morals."
1991 Soviet foreign passports a year.
These passports were issued in Russia until the end of 2000.
On the decline of the Soviet era, in 1991, it was adopted by a very liberal Law "On procedure of exit and entry of the USSR in the USSR", which guaranteed the right of entry and exit, and greatly simplifies the preparation of the passport. This law, as amended acting in Russia until 1996.
Exit visas are abolished only in 1993. And at the same time has been set familiar to us a list of documents: certified on the job-application form and a certified copy of employment record. Since 2013, only the application is required to obtain the passport.
exit visa to the Soviet passport.
The modern passport
Standardization of passports took place only in 1980, when the cause is undertaken by ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization). Document 9303, which sets the standard "passports with machine-readable" was adopted.
form of the Russian passport of the old sample.
Gradually began to issue such passports all over the world. In the USSR do not have time, and the first Russian passport with machine-readable area code, while not yet completed, appeared in late 1996. Fill in this area began in 1999 (in the passports issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs), and the ubiquitous Russian passports have become machine readable only with the April 1, 2004.
The Russian foreign passport of the new sample.
The present stage in the evolution of the passport not only as a travel document, as was the introduction of identity cards in his biometric information. The process was initiated in 2002, when 118 countries, including Russia, and has been signed so-called New Orleans agreement that biometrics person is defined as a priority identification technology.