How do tights
• How do tights
It would seem tights - it's a very simple piece of clothing, and it is difficult to find a woman who at least once did not hold them in your hands, however, the production process is quite complex, consists of a set of operations and by the same route. Apparently so, in spite of the large number of women, and a very large consumption of tights (more than 400 million pairs per year) in Russia is practically no own production. More precisely absent. However, in 2013, a modern factory for the production of pantyhose was built in the Noginsk district of Moscow region.
The factory building was built from scratch, actually in the open field.
Production area covers 5000 square meters. m., which has more than 250 different tools.
Everyday tights traditionally made of two kinds of raw materials - polyamide and elastane. For me it was a revelation that the feedstock for tights is oil. More precisely polyamide made from petroleum products. But that's a shame - not to Russia. All high-quality raw materials for stockings imported from Europe.
Stored raw materials in the shop, as any climate disruption can lead to its deterioration. Generally, in the workshop of a modern system of ventilation and climate control, as in the production of pantyhose should strictly comply with certain humidity and pressure.
The original and polyamide and elastane white. Please note that the sleeve, on which the yarn is wound - different colors. Since different models are made of different yarns. Different can be not only polyamide (glossy, matte), but elastane. For example, smooth polyamide - pleasant to the touch, but gives a light gloss (physics in fact still has not been canceled, the light is reflected from smooth surfaces), and a textured polyamide (uneven surface) light is not reflected, but the touch is not as silky, but no shine. Each has chooses herself, that she is more important.
The polyamide pantyhose responsible for lekost and strength, and spandex for elasticity and good oblegaemost. At the same time it has one drawback - it is not very durable. In order to increase its strength in quality pantyhose using spandex not in pure form but obkruchenny polyamide yarns. To determine the quality in front of you pantyhose or not does not need to have special knowledge. It suffices to consider tights up to the light. The brighter the visible tree-like pattern, the better elastane. If the picture is not visible at all, most likely in spandex tights will not do, and they will move down to the feet and gather the folds at the ankles.
Near the bobbin with the yarn looks like a plastic bottle, which is not surprising, polyamide is made from the same granules as, for example, plastic tires.
The invention of such machines in the mid-twentieth century, a revolution in the production of pantyhose, and back seam, which, previously sewn pantyhose legs, turned into a decorative element that adds zest to the image and any functional load is not responsible. Machines operate in automatic mode. Human intervention is only required when changing programs or during bobbin replacement.
Tights not tally entirely, and the two halves of-pipe on the special circular knitting machines. More than 400 needles are involved in the creation of one such halves. Because of the speed and small size needles to keep track of their movements is almost impossible, so it seems that pantyhose are knitted almost out of thin air.
This is where one can see the gum from the "pipe". Binding of a pipe takes about 2 minutes. On average, one pair of tights goes from 7 to 9 km of yarn.
After 2 minutes, the car will is such a "gut" of nearly 1, 5 meters. Very little resemblance to the usual tights. And who ever wore tights, knows that his legs are not so long.
And they are not that long, because immediately after the mating semi-finished products are packed in special bags and sent to the regulator, in which, under pressure and high temperature steam polufabikaty shrink and diminish in size.
The stabilization takes about 40 minutes.
From semi-finished stabilizer out wet and dried before the next step in a few hours.
After stabilizing the two "tubes" are sewn together and finally obtained the usual tights.
This seaming machine carousel. Man is only involved at the first stage - skewer two halves on special holders. Then the machine does everything herself.
Automatic stretch and cut each half of the top half, sewed crotch sews the upper joints (by the way the seams, this machine makes folding - a more perfect type of flat seam, before putting it looks like a normal round Overlock, and after donning stretched into a flat line, that makes invisible seam even under very tight clothing).
The entire cycle of semi-finished putting on the holders, before the release of the finished tights also takes about two minutes.
The last step - stitching toes. The man is also not required.
Tights almost ready. In any case, look for more than usual, only white. According pnevmotrube ready tights come in a special bag, which then go on dyeing.
Very thin tights or corrective kolotki, which can not handle rotary machine sewn by hand.
The dye shop - it is a separate room. The mixing of the dyes is also taking place in the automatic mode for a given program because the error in the composition even in one hundredth of a percent will damage the entire party.
After dyeing tights returning to shop. On special molding machines give them an anatomical shape. Pantyhose worn on a special form, and then treated with high temperature steam.
All moulders work gloves, as in contact with bare skin on the freshly painted tights are easily visible potozhirovye tracks. For other employees claim their hands too strict - no rings and bracelets, a good manicure, nails short and special hydrophilic cream.
Ready, ironed and preformatted tights on the conveyor into a special Hung and now they just have to pack.
Packaging machines also automatic. Man only fills stockings in the car and arranges the output in boxes. Everything else makes the machine itself - packs in a plastic bag, envelope and even pastes stickers with color-coded sizes.
Now we have to expand the finished tights in boxes and can be sent to stores.
Factory produces over 50 different models - tights from simple to complex with shorts corrective models. Quality tights (tested personally) are not inferior to the usual Italian, and some models even unique, for example, completely opaque tights that do not sparkle even under the flashes of cameras - one of the most popular models, thanks to the stylists, announced a few years ago, a great battle tights.