The four councils of Verona Walk
• the four councils of Verona Walk
Verona - the city is mainly known for "Romeo and Juliet", because this is where the events described by Shakespeare. However, in the courtyard of Juliet, I did not hit and did not regret it, because in Verona are plenty of other, much more notable monuments.
In this post I will talk about the four councils of the city: Duomo, San Zeno and San Fermo and Sant'Anastasya. This is a huge office with a bunch of pictures and letters.
Let's start with the Duomo - cathedral, built in the XII century. in the Romanesque style. Noticeable reconstruction of XIV-XV centuries. He gave the Gothic cathedral.
extant campaigns are built in several stages - the foundation and the first few meters - the romance, the middle - the beginning of XVI century. (Michele San Michele project), while the upper part was built only in the XX century. However, the campaign has not been completed. Due to the lack of funding for a long time, the completion of the project remains on paper only.
From the Romanesque cathedral preserved some stone decorate the facades. Firstly this is a great portal of the main facade with a portico.
Portico created by local craftsman Nicolo. In the photo relief lunette above the entrance - the center of "The Virgin and Child", on the left - "Adoration of the Shepherds", right - the "Adoration of the Magi."
One of the two griffins.
On the slopes of the columns depict the apostles.
More details of the main facade (click on the thumbnails will open in a new window \ tab).
In the south, the side facades are also preserved sculptural groups, but made later in the "Lombard style." Especially noteworthy lions
We go inside. Interior advantageously XV-XVI cc.
The main artistic treasures is the "Adoration of the Magi" Liberale da Verona ...
... and the "Ascension of the Virgin" by Titian. The latter received the order after written for the Venetian Frari altarpiece on the same subject. Capella, which is represented by the picture, designed by Jacopo Sansovino.
The columns of the central nave are made of red Verona marble. The central altar - the project Michele San Michele.
The tomb of St. Agatha - the work of the Lombard masters of Campione. Why then the tomb of St. Agatha - I do not know her relics are kept, as far as I know, in Catania, where she was martyred. Perhaps then a piece.
Inside the altar here are the frescoes by Francesco authorship Torbido (Giorgione's pupil and Liberale da Verona).
was attached to the Duomo, the church of San Giovanni in Fonte, previously perform the functions of the cathedral baptistery.
The main thing here is to pay attention - an octagonal font end of the XII century, carved from a single piece of red Verona marble Brioloto master..
In each of the eight faces - relief from the Gospels.
On the walls around the fonts - frescoes late XV - beginning of XVI century, attributed to Falconetti, Paolo Farinati and Giovan Francesco carotene..
But that's not all. By the Duomo and the Church of St. Helena was attached. Here is her interior.
Noteworthy is the fact that at the end of XX century. are held archaeological excavations and discovered the foundation and the mosaic floor of the altar and the presbytery of the first church in Verona IV. (!)
Fast forward now in another part of the city to the Basilica of San Zeno Maggiore.
The cathedral was built to hold the relics of St. Zeno of Verona (revered in the Catholic and in Orthodox churches). The present Romanesque building is much older than the Duomo - it was built in the middle of the X century. in place of the first two churches VIII and V cc.
The following picture on the left of the cathedral - the tower of the now-defunct Benedictine Monastery (XIII c.), And the right - the campanile (XI cent.).
The entrance portal, like the cathedral, created a master Niccolò in the XII century.
In the center of the lunette of St. Zenon, he blesses members of the nobility (they top) and the people (they city flag). Bottom scenes from the life of the saint.
The portal looks much more fancy than the portal of the Duomo at the expense of 18 of the side panels. Stories, mostly biblical, but there are also legendary and everyday on the life of Theodoric. Those on the right - the work of the same master Niccolò.
Those that left the master credited Dzhulermo, also known work in the Cathedral of Pisa and Cagliari.
In the following figure the pictures other relief decoration of the portal.
Hardly distinguishable reliefs on the facade (not in the portal) - wizard Brioloto (the same that made the font in San Giovanni in Fonte).
His authorship is attributed to window-rose "Ruota della Fortuna" ( "Wheel of Fortune") and six surrounding shapes depicting the inconstancy of human successes and failures. This is one of the earliest examples of such a window in Romanic architecture, in consequence such windows have become an integral part of the Gothic cathedral.
Even inside, you can go to the central portal and see the fantastic door XI cent., Made up of 48 bronze panels. It is known that over the panel works as a local master, and invited from Saxony. On the panels depict saints, virtues Allegory of Music, the Cathedral and other donators.
Next to the cathedral is preserved cloister previously mentioned Benedictine monastery.
The rest of the buildings of the monastery destroyed during the conquest of Italy by Napoleon.
In the southern nave - Lorenzo Veneziano crucifix.
Most of the frescoes of the nave date from the XIII-XIV centuries. Masters unknown.
The most prominent is a huge picture of St. Christopher.
And the crucifix attributed to the workshop of Altichiero.
The wooden ceiling of the nave in the form of a truncated trefoil also preserved from the XIII century.
Altar painted by Francesco Torbido previously mentioned in the XVI century.
The most important treasure of the cathedral altar polyptych - "Pala di San Zeno" Andrea Mantegna. Lower panel - copies, the originals were stolen by Napoleon's troops and are still kept in France.
And here is the crypt with the sarcophagus of St. Zeno.
A third Cathedral of Verona - San Fermo Maggiore.
It is against this holy place Fermo and Rustico saint martyred in the III. There is an upper church was built by the Franciscans in the XIII-XIV centuries. Beneath it is partially preserved old temple, built by the Benedictines in the XI century. The apse and side facade of the church decorated in the XV century.
Details of the main facade (click on the thumbnails will open in a new window \ tab).
The portal side of the facade.
To the right of the entrance - pulpit XIV century. of white and red marble, surrounded by murals by local artist Martin di Verona.
pulpit Details (click on the thumbnails will open in a new window \ tab).
On the left of the entrance - a monument to Niccolo Brenzone - a masterpiece of the Florentine sculptor Nanni di Bartolo and love me the artist Pisanello (this is the earliest signed work by the master). Alas, the approach and how art should be considered no possibility, there are some partitions. For details see here: 1, 2, 3, 4, depicts the Annunciation and the Archangel Raphael and Michael.
Over on kontrfasade, directly above the entrance portal, visible fresco of XIV century. "Crucifixion" - a masterpiece of Turon di Max, teachers Altichiero.
The central altar with frescoes XIV-XVIII centuries.
above the side portal and "The Crucifixion", workshop Turion di Max.
And, of course, it is impossible not to pay attention to a set of stunning shaped wooden single nave.
And now - the lower church.
are dated XII-XIV centuries frescoes on the pillars. It is worth paying attention to the "Baptism of Christ" in the XII.
Altar and wooden crucifix in the XIV.
On the stairs between the old and the new church can be seen on, and XIV tomb lawyer Antonio Pelakani in. The mural depicts the Virgin and Child with Saints and relief - of Antonio and his disciples.
And finally, the last of the four and the largest cathedral in Verona - Sant'Anastasya. This cathedral was originally built in the Gothic style, from the XIII to XIV centuries. The church was built at the same time Zannipolo in Venice, their facades are very similar.
The bell tower 72 meters high.
On the left of the facade - the tomb of condottiere and Verona mayor - Guglielmo da Castelbarco beginning of XIV century. This is the first example of this arrangement tombs (canopy). As far as I know, it is characteristic only of Verona. Following the example of the built located near the more famous "Scaliger Tombs"
The central portal.
Well, we go inside. The interior is incredibly colorful and cozy.
At the entrance to immediately pay attention to two "hunchbacks", supporting the bowl of holy water. One on the left - authorship Gabriele Caliari, father of Paolo Veronese.
And the one on the right is attributed to the sculptor Paolo Orefiche.
Like the other churches in Verona - the rich painting. Let's start with the transept. The altar on the right wall - fresco "The Last Judgment" Turion di Max, already familiar from the San Fermo.
On the left the wall of the chancel - tomb Cortez Seredzho XV. Sculptural component attribute Tuscan Pietro di Nicolo Lamberti (or di Nanni Bartolo) and painting - Venetian Michele Giambono.
To the right of the altar - Capella Pellegrini. Its main masterpiece hidden under the very vaults of the transept - a fresco "St. George and the Princess" by Pisanello. Consider it very difficult without binoculars or a telephoto. But it's worth it!
In the fresco depicted George before departing for battle with the serpent (serpent at the left of frescoes preserved only partially). To the right of the saint stands Princess of Trebizond, which is just the time came to give the snake to be eaten. Pay attention to the horses, you've seen at least one more picture or mural that period (XV c.) With the angles?
The very chapel decorated with terracotta panels, and XV. Altarpiece - "Lady Humility" in the XIV.
The Chapel of Kavala, on the right wall, near the tomb of Federico Cavallo XV. - only in Verona fresco Altichiero end of the XIV century. - "The Adoration of the family Cavalier Virgin."
The frescoes of the left wall of the transept.
In the aisles are also many beautiful chapels. For example, a family altar Pidemonte, decorated with a picture of "St. Martin" Francesco carotene.
Chapel of St. Thomas Aquinas.
Chapel of the Virgin Mary. In the lunette fresco "Descent from the Cross" Liberale da Verona.
And finally a few kinds of wonderful Interior Sant'Anastasi.
Well, that's all.