• Legends Vatican
The ancient walls of this sacred state have seen not only the light of Faith and Hope, sometimes darkness happen to build their nest here. Lies, betrayal and envy did not pass this place. Indifference - instead of love, deceit - instead of wisdom, pride - instead of humility, intolerance and greed - it was too. And this story is not to forget ...
All Vatican history riddled with contradictions and mystery. And, despite the apparent spirituality of the papal state, here, too, seething passion vengeance, vengeance intrigued. For a long time the Catholic Church has been closely associated with Rome.
It is about the Vatican tell scary legends and traditions of the avenging hand of the Inquisition, horrified people in the Middle Ages.
During the Roman Empire, Christianity gradually gained strength, and throughout the religious communities trying to seize power. But it could only Roman community, and since then it has become not only the center of the religious movement, but also a powerful political force. Until the nineteenth century, all the rest of the province suffered a state of siege, passed by military courts, the people were sent to prison or exile.
One of the legends associated with the Vatican, says that the founder of the Roman community was none other than as a disciple of Jesus Christ - the Apostle Peter. In favor of this fact and say chronicles that have survived. And though today no one can say, it is still true, or so Roman community was trying to emphasize their superiority proximity to the founder of Christianity, religion, yet have a history, and that Peter really preached and lived in Rome. According to legend, his tomb is located just on the hill, where the Vatican today. And only later there was erected and the Church of St. Peter. Another legend says that Rome was the city, which is the longest in the state prevented the spread of the Christian religion. And so here was the blood of martyrs is spilled and here was killed and Peter himself. Therefore, the Roman community was simply obliged to take responsibility to our descendants for the atonement of their citizens. And because the Vatican was established.
But the most surprising, and at the same time very sad secret of the Vatican - is the story of Pope John VIII, to be exact, popess. In the history of Catholics have a very strange and very unpleasant for those who believe the fact that today in the Vatican is considered a fiction, but one still does not know exactly what really happened. According to legend, in the ninth century, papal throne occupied by a woman ... a few years. I must say that in those days was considered a woman to the devil.
Pope Joan in the image of the Whore of Babylon
Thus, according to legend, a Christian missionary, wandering the world, got a daughter Agnes. However, to carry around with this girl for a missionary was not the most worthy at the time of employment and so disguised it in a man's dress, made his first assistant. Agnes was a good student, but once killed her father. For this teenage girl best option to survive was to stay a boy. She was so wandered through the world for several years and eventually stopped at a monastery near the town of Fulda, taking the name Johann.
She stood out among his brothers, but in sixteen years, fell in love with a monk, fled with her lover to France. But on the way he died, and Agnes, left under the name Johann, start a new life. He came to Rome and began to move slowly to the upper tier of the clergy, and in 855, after the death of Leo IV of the pontiff, ascended the papal throne. And, it is quite possible that no one would never have learned about the true field of the Pope, but Agnes showed mistake: she was pregnant. Contractions it happened in the course of the procession, which ended both the child and for popess death. Also, the most exciting is the question of the Vatican secret location of the tomb of the Apostle Peter. That it is associated with a very interesting story that happened as recently as the middle of last century.
So, February 10, 1939, after the death of Pope Pius the XI, in the vast St. Peter's Basilica has gathered a great number of the faithful, who in sorrowful unison prayed fervently for the soul of the pontiff.
At the same time, under the nave of the cathedral, in the crypt of the work was in full swing. Workers removed from underground floor marble slabs. But they had broken twenty centimeters, spades again stumbled on the plate. Moreover, the wall was large enough niche. And because the workers knew that the cathedral was built on stilts on loose ground, they had a question: whether or not to continue the excavations, as a result, they could upset the balance of the entire building.
But what made the dungeon these workers, and it is on such a day? It turned out that they were doing the will of the deceased Pope, who at this moment the crowd of believers accompanied on his last journey. Just before the last will and testament of Pius the XI, composed his own hand, was opened, where he wished to be buried under the south wall of the ancient cave, about Pius X, close to the "confessional" Peter, where, according to legend, and the tomb of the first student Savior.
"Confessional," the apostle Peter (under the floor of the alleged burial place of the Apostle)
Managing director of the Vatican, Cardinal Pacelli, who a few days later had to accept the papal dignity and the name of Pius XII, ordered to prepare burial bequeathed in place. Although architects have warned that the grave there is hardly enough space, the cardinal ordered to withdraw to the cave floor behind the wall to free up the necessary space. About workers standing priest scrutinized the debris that scraped workers. His name was Ludwig Kaas this. An ethnic German, Kaas had a doctorate and was a professor of church history. Once the pope commissioned him to explore a dungeon under the cathedral, so for five years by Kaas span explored this cave.
Spacious niche, which was discovered under the floor, suggesting that maybe this is the tomb of Peter.
The mystery of the tomb of the apostle Peter held the heart and soul of Pacelli his life. When the conclave elected him pope, and he became Pius XII, the first thing I went down to the dungeon to see with their own eyes the sacred plate. Pontiff after much deliberation gave the order, which his predecessors were even afraid to voice he ordered the excavation under the cathedral, where, in his opinion should have been the tomb of the Apostle.
I must say that the pontiff strongly risked. After all, if it turned out that there was nothing there, and Saint Peter in the Vatican was not, it would be proof that completely refute the sacred legend.
It turned out that the plates on which the workers came across, were not more than a base of the first floor of the Basilica, which is still in the early fourth century, the emperor Constantine erected. A tradition says that the altar of the basilica stands just above the tomb of Peter, as well as itself the Basilica of Constantine destroyed, then in its place built a cathedral, one that has survived to the present day. And the altar installed at the same place, having cut through a small window in the floor - the confessional, from which believers could gaze turn to the tomb of St. Peter, hidden deep underground. But it was, at least, strange, because no one certainly could not know whether there is St. Peter's power or not.
About the excavations, no one knew, "masons" was obliged to remain silent and not to tell anyone about the work, even the members of the household. But the world is still found after the war about the excavation.
In their speeches, Pius XII, in a rather veiled hint that the excavations will bring some "confidence", but his reticence only spurred interest.
But more workers dig, the more interesting things they found. If earlier it was believed that the southern wall based on the wall are once here Circus of Nero, and that is the cathedral where Christians under Nero was executed and where, as expected, and was crucified, Peter, the excavations have revealed quite different.
It turned out that the Basilica of Constantine was built on the site where once was a cemetery. You can imagine the state of archaeologists when they came first in one mausoleum, and then at the others, who were standing in a row, turning into a kind of suite. Under the blows of shovels appeared from the darkness of a necropolis: dozens of the mausoleums, sarcophagi and crypts ...
Gradually able to identify and outline the cemetery: indeed, it was the largest necropolis of all those ever found, archaeologists here. And he was just under the nave. From the inscriptions on the mausoleums it was clear that burials were for the Gentiles, and only some of them - to Christians. So they were buried here still at the dawn of Christianity, long before Constantine ordered to build a temple on the site. This meant that Christians themselves chose a pagan cemetery as its last refuge.
But why? To this should be a very good reason: for example, the desire to find eternal peace near Peter. One of the mausoleums surrounded by a wall, which archaeologists call "red wall". And that there was found a mosaic depicting the Galilean fisherman. Yes-yes, that Peter, whom the Savior anoint to feed His sheep.
Thus, we can reconstruct the chronology of events. In '67 Peter executed in the circus of Nero, and was buried in the nearby cemetery. And since the '80s, he began to guard the grave: this is evidenced by the wall in a dungeon. It is possible that Christians must have bought this land, built around the tomb of Peter the stone wall. Thus, in the second century, the faithful had put the so-called "red wall".
It turns out that the excavations in the cave confirm the existing tradition, but the question arises: if the tomb of Peter found, then where could escape its power?
"The enclosure" examined inside and out, finding that it was the tomb of St. Peter, but there was one thing. Unfortunately, it was empty.
But scientists have been set up not so pessimistic. Some experts on the history of Catholicism note that in one of the niches found human remains, but without the skull. Medical examination proved that the bones of a man, and a man not very old age. The documents of these remains is mentioned in passing, but there is every reason to believe that the remains of which are found under the "red wall", after all, belong to Petro Mohyla.
The Pope Francis and the Metropolitan. John of Pergamon made a joint prayer before the so-called "coffin St. Apostle Peter "
One day in July 1939, Pius XII in his thoughts turned to the "confessional" Apostle - St. Peter's. It was at this time that he took quite a responsible decision for themselves, "dig" to the mystery, despite the fact that many people still prefer that this mystery has surrounded veil of mystery - because then it would be much safer to live ... But for some reason it seems that it was Pius XII departed this life peacefully, without a heavy heart. After all, in the end, the Pope made sure he believed his entire spiritual life is not in vain, and the answer to his concerns, he knew even before he was found by archeologists. Indeed, faith is often still is ahead of the science.