12 unique Soviet cars
Presenting your attention some interesting concepts developed during the Soviet era, and unique cars, existing in a single copy.
As a rule, they were created to establish speed records, sometimes in their construction used "aircraft" technology. And some models built by enthusiasts, who worked alone or in small groups, and amazed the people of masterpieces, largely superior automotive products.
Unreleased 1932 serial GAZ-A was almost a complete copy of Ford-A, but the GAZ-A-Aero, built in 1934, looks a little like his predecessor. Engineer Alexander Nikitin in its work "The research vehicle aerodynamics" was able to reduce fuel consumption by about a quarter and to increase the maximum speed of 80 km / h to 106 km / h.
To this end, the GAZ-A had overhauled remake, leaving only the same chassis and engine. Body steel sheets, wooden frame was constructed on the basis of the models tested in a wind tunnel MAI. The rear wheel fairings were closed, the locks and the steps are hidden inside, and lights are recessed into the wings. Body weight at almost not changed: GAS-A weighed 1200 kg, GAS-A-Aero - 1270 kg. Vehicle width remains the same - 1710 mm and the length is 4970 mm and a wheelbase 2620 mm.
Unfortunately, World War II Nikitina forced to stop research in the field of aerodynamics of cars, turned his attention to tank tracks, and the fate of a single instance of the GAZ-A-Aero is unknown.
Sports car "Victory-Sports" (GAS-SG1) designed Alexey Smolin aircraft engineer, based on a chassis serial GAS-M-20 "Win", but boosted engine and aerodynamic body duralumin allowed to achieve truly high speed performance. GAZ-SG1 was the first Soviet sports car built in several copies. Most likely, there are five such machines. Three of them in 1951 were equipped with rotary blowers "Rutz" and triple carburetor K-22, which made it possible to raise the capacity of the modified "pobedovskogo" engine capacity of 2487 cc up to 105 liters. s, and the velocity of - up to 190 km / h. With its dimensions (length - 5680 mm, width - 1695 mm, height - 1480mm, wheelbase - 2700 mm), the car weighed only 1,200 kg. On machines of the brand "Victory-Sport" was established three national record speed and won three championship of the USSR (1950, 1955 and 1956.).
ZIS-112, which appeared shortly after the "Victory-Sport", also conceived as a sports car, but the designers faced a number of difficulties. Serial engine VMS-110 output 140 l. from. It turned out to be weak for the body weight of 2450 kg, and had to be replaced by in-line 8-cylinder engine capacity of 6005 cc, immodest dimensions and weight which badly affected the car's weight distribution. Weighted front portion constantly strives to withdraw VMS-112 into a skid.
After a number of modifications (base was reduced from 3760 to 3160 mm, total length - from 5920 to 5320 mm, the compression ratio of the engine is increased to 7, 1 to 8, 7 units added two carburetor) engine output increased to 192 liters. from. at 3800 rev / min and a maximum speed -. to 210 km / h. But it did not save the hulking ZIS. After the racing season 1955 it was decommissioned.
GAZ-Torpedo, which appeared in the same in 1952 as the ZIS-112, has a higher maneuverability, though inferior offspring of the plant. Stalin on the high-speed characteristics. Alexei Smolin abandoned serial aggregates GAS-M-20, and their developing new streamlined body with a clean sheet. The new car was much easier than "win-Sport" for large dimensions (length - 6300 mm, width - 2070 mm, height 1200 mm). Its weight was 1100 kg.
Smolin stopped for forced "pobedovskom" motor already tested to GAS-SG1, and volume of 2487 cc capacity of 105 liters. Supercharged "Rutz" which allowed to disperse the car to 191 km / h. Torpedo-gas two-union speed record was found.
Record-racing car "Moskvich-G2" was developed by designers and I. Gladilin I. Okunev and built on MZMA in 1956. Engine "Moskvich-405" developed capacity to 75 liters. from. at 5600 r / min, which allows the vehicle curb weight of 660 kg of speeds over 220 km / h. It was three-union record set. In fact, the "Moskvich-G2" almost did not differ from previously constructed "Moskvich-G1", which in 1956 received the same engine and streamlined body, but it is believed that these are different models.
In 1959, "Moskvich-G2" has been updated to take part in circuit racing, it was installed 70-hp engine "Moskvich-407" and the safety arch on the driver's seat. In this modification avtomobl could be dispersed to 193 km / h. Racer E. spindles, driving "Moskvich-G2-407", won the car class up to 2500 cc race at the All-Union in 1959. After 1960, "Moskvich-G2" in the race did not participate.
Car "Yuna" Yuri Algebraistova - one of the most famous "homemade" of Soviet times. Car Construction began in 1970, but left the garage for the first time, "Yuna" only in 1982. In creating the vehicle participate brother Yuri and Stanislav Shcherbinin artists, is fond of car design.
Some units and units were taken from the design of serial GAZ-24 "Volga", but a lot had to do with his hands. Completely independently developed and built body: first welded frame, then vykleena basis of several layers of fiberglass reinforcement and made of square tubes.
Car "lives" are constantly being exposed to any alterations and improvements. Recently, the engine was replaced by a V6 from the BMW 525i, modified body, installed electric windows and headlights, devices from different cars. "Una" is still on the run and broke more than half a million kilometers, having participated in many motor race, and even starring in a movie ( "testers" Ukrtelefilm, 1987).
A striking example of Soviet "homemade" - a car "pangolin" Alexander Kulygina, which was released in 1980. Body vykleivalsya fiberglass plywood on the master model, and at the conclusion of all the matrices were destroyed, eliminating the possibility of a second instance of "Pangolin".
The motor car, built on the basis of VAZ "classics", placed practically in the cabin, immediately behind the instrument panel: body shape, looks more like a Lamborghini Countach or the DeLorean, than the masterpieces of the domestic automobile industry, did not involve a front engine placement.
The original dome that combines the doors and the roof, driven by two pneumatic cylinders (the fault of the system once led to the fact that KULYGIN could not leave on their own car - in contrast to the Lamborghini doors, hood "pangolin" is not balanced). In the 90 years the body has been modified (removed part of the roof, additional welded beams under the bottom) and repainted.
Despite the fact that the engine and other units are taken from the production cars VAZ, "pangolin" due to light body and low aerodynamic drag surpasses them in speed performance, accelerating to 180 km / h. For the sake of state numbers and permission to travel abroad Kulygina had to make a number of compromises, changing the design of the car. In the 90 years of the designer she emigrated to the US, and in 2004 died in a tragic accident.
Homemade car built in the early 1980s by two enthusiasts - Dmitry Parfenov and Gennady Hainovym - was, without exaggeration, a miracle of technology for its time. Despite the fact that some units were taken from a stock car (VAZ-2105 engine, transmission ZAZ-968), the majority of nodes "Laura" car makers have made their own. "Laura," whose design began in 1982, from the cars of those years is different from the front-wheel drive (the first serial front-soviet VAZ-2108 came only two years later). All devices in the cabin were electronic. These devices (including onboard computer) and Parfenov Khain also collected independently by using more than three dozen chips. Only two five-seater car was built "Laura". Their curb weight was 1,000 kg, the fuel consumption at a speed of 120 km / h - 7, 8 liters / 100 km, the maximum speed - 165 km / h.
Work Hainova Gennady and Dmitry Parfenov, build a car, "Laura", did not go unnoticed, and they were asked to lead the project to create a prototype future cars - Leningrad advanced prototyping laboratory motorcars us. The first work in the "official" status became "Ohta" - a car that was supposed to be based on the VAZ-21083, but it holds a large number of passengers have good aerodynamic performance and size to be no larger than "Lada".
Salon-'trasformer "easily converted to the dining or sleeping area (front seats unfolded at 180 °, and the average number of transformed into a table)," Ohta "could be a double van or minivan seven-seater.
Many of the solutions demonstrated on "Ohta", later appeared on a production car - alas, overseas.
"Ohta", traveled by motor shows of the world, one could not go back: 90 years of the customs officials did not miss tax-free car that has not been registered in their home country. Bonded warehouse - not the best place, and in a few years Parfenov managed to get it back is already in a very shabby condition. To date, of the "Okhta" little left, and its restoration - a big question.
Concept Moskvich-2144 "Istra" was developed in 1985-1988. the Office of design and experimental works AZLK.
It was assumed that the car body, the layout of which was tested in a wind tunnel to achieve the best aerodynamic characteristics will include duralumin panels and wide doors opening upward. Electronic systems have been adjusted air suspension ride height and diagnose faults shown on the display not only prevent, but also recommendations for addressing the problems. The car was provided three-cylinder turbocharged multi-fuel diesel engine with a continuously variable transmission. Unfortunately, on the creation of a model sample, which is now kept in the museum, it is not moved.
Experimental minicar NAMI-050 "Squirrel" was developed by us in cooperation with IMZ-Ural. Two-cylinder engine of 746 cc whole was to provide fuel flow 5 l / 100 km. In this case, "Squirrel" was designed to transport 4 people. The car features an unusual layout: the front part of the body with windshield recline hinged to allow access to the front seats and the rear can be accessed through a single side door.
"Protein", a curb weight of which was 640 kg, can accelerate to 80 km / h. It has also been made easier to open a prototype (without doors and with an awning). In 1957, the USSR Council of Ministers considered the question of mass production "Squirrels", but the choice was made in favor of the future ZAZ-965, which is based on the design technical solutions formed tested for Fiat 600.
The main idea of the project VNIITE-PT (All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Technical Aesthetics Perspective Taxi) - the need for a special vehicle for the taxi service that would be safe, roomy, comfortable and maneuverable. The concept was built using units of cars "Moskvich" and has been successfully tested on the streets of Moscow, but in the series did not go.
Passengers (up to 4 people) fell into the "promising taxi" through a wide sliding door with electric driver's seat is placed almost in the middle between the front wheel arches (with a slight shift to the left), which ensures a good overview and freedom of movement. Playground with pedal driving could change its position relative to the driver's seat. Also worth noting unconventional engine layout "Muscovite-408" volume of 1358 cm³ and a capacity of 50 liters. from. - cross, in the rear.