Misconceptions about the ancient world
Through countless books, films and television shows average scall, in our heads there was a fairly stable image of the ancient world. Togas, feasts, gladiator fights ... all pretty standard. But if you go back in time, you may encounter a completely different world, it is absolutely not similar to our ideas. And everything that we demonstrate on the blue screen, can be very far from the truth.
African citizens in ancient Britain
a lot of people of different nationalities living in London. It seems that a common sight minorities only in the last century began in the streets, well, or so. And before that it was a country exclusively white. But this is not quite true. In Britain, black people live at least 1,800 years.
In 2010, researchers found evidence that the Roman City was home to the people of North African origin. One of them was "the lady with iron bracelets." She was buried with a lot of jewelry that allows you to take it to the upper class and not be considered an ordinary traveler or a slave. But even the "Iron Lady" pales in comparison to the most famous citizen of the ancient African York. In the year 208 BC. e. Roman emperor Septimius Severus Libyan origin settled there, and rules out empires for three years, until his death.
But with the fall of Rome's multi-ethnic country's history has not ended. There is evidence that small communities of black people permanently resident in the UK since the 12th century. At least some remains attributed to the period prior to the arrival of the Conqueror (1066 n. E.). In 1501, Catherine of Aragon was his retinue of Muslims, Jews, immigrants from North Africa who settled in the UK. So multinational - a phenomenon characteristic of this country throughout its history.
The Neanderthals were pretty smart
The word "Neanderthal" for us - a synonym for the word "idiot", a reminder that before the person became the main arbiter of the destinies of the world, he first had to destroy their more stupid ancestors. A Neanderthal image - this is a classic image of the Ice Age. But these ideas are not entirely accurate. There is evidence to prove that our ancestors were as intelligent as we are.
In 2014, researchers found that Neanderthals in northern Europe hunted mammoths and bison in deep gorges. This complex logistical operation plan called for the development of cooperation between the participants and the ability to plan. It was also found a lot of evidence that the Neanderthal tools were quite complex and they are all created with the help of bones, stones and homemade glue.
Also found signs of Neanderthal culture. Archaeologists have discovered decorations and pigments for painting the body, which may have been necessary to conduct elaborate rituals. Gibraltar even has a cave, preserved samples of Neanderthal art.
was not Jewish slaves in ancient Egypt
One of the most famous and earliest biblical stories is - Exodus. After several centuries of slavery the Jews had finally managed to escape with the help of 10 plagues. Although only a few today believe that story true, logical to assume that some grounds it still has under itself. If you move back to 4,000 years, we will see many of the Jews wandering the Sinai Desert. Right?
But archaeological evidence suggests otherwise. The researchers found no evidence that 600,000 Jewish families spent many years in the desert. And when you consider that there are traces of the presence of a particular area, even very small groups of nomads, such a complete absence of even the slightest sign of makes you wonder. Also, there is no evidence that at some time in Israel was a large influx of migrants. Egyptian state meticulously keeps all records of all the events of history, including on migration. If a number of slaves who made up more than a quarter of the population, at one point left, it would probably have remained a mention in the annals. After all, it would mean and labor shortages and economic collapse. But no such record is not found.
By the way, in ancient Egypt belonged to the slaves are much better than in most cultures of the world. Many of them were simply debt slaves, who have sold themselves to pay the debts, and they had a definite deadline of slavery. Under certain circumstances, they lived better than free peasants. And this is not described in the Bible cruel tyrants of Egypt.
The Romans introduced laws against frequent holidays and a large amount of food
In addition to their penchant for cruelty Romans are known for their love of festivities. Of course, we understand that the Romans never ate until nausea, and yet, we still represent the Roman festival with food mountains and rivers of wine.
Yet the Roman state in many ways interfere with the enjoyment to its citizens. Throughout the history of the Empire introduced dozens of laws aimed at limiting the amount of money that individuals can spend on entertainment. In 81 BC. e. Sulla passed a law severely restricting spending on fun pastime. A few years later it was introduced another law prescribing the amount and types of food that could be on the table. Other acts may restrict everything from the maximum amount to the banquet to prevent people from spending have in other people's homes.
And these laws are not always respected, penalties for violations can be very cruel. When Julius Caesar soldiers dispersed feasting and strictly monitor the expenditure of the population in the markets. Only after Nero, these laws have been abolished, and the citizens can satisfy their appetites.
Stonehenge was great
The ancient stone circle in the heart of the countryside of England, Stonehenge is suppressed by its grandeur visitors for centuries. Seemingly unchanged since it was built, today it is a symbol of mystery and loneliness.
But this reputation is likely undeserved. Probably a long time ago Stonehenge was surrounded by a large, bustling metropolis.
In 2014, a group of scientists has completed the most extensive study of this riddle. Besides remaining at a distance of 3 kilometers of the giant stones, traces were found the chapels, burial mounds, other ritual shrines scattered around. There were even traces of nearby settlements, which probably lived a lot of people. So we can assume that the ancient Stonehenge was a very busy place that is constantly evolving.
Brontosaurus actually existed
An entire generation of fans of the dinosaurs come to the delight of the word "brontosaurus". He has been known since 1903, when Otniel Marsh failed to identify the bones previously discovered Apatosaurus. Due to this error (or even Steven Spielberg), students today are fascinated by dinosaurs that never existed.
At least, it did not exist until April 2015, when scientists thought that brontosaurus did when He walked on the planet.
The report on 300 pages of the scientists from the New University of Lisbon in Norway analyzed more than 81 different bones of dinosaurs and concluded that it is possible to allocate part of the skeleton of brontosaurus as a separate species. And although it is very similar to Apatosaurus, he has a bit more narrow and high neck. This difference was enough for scientists to isolate three distinct species within the genus Brontosaurus.
They even noted that many Apatosaurus remains on display in museums (including the American Museum of Natural History), need to be re-examined and possibly reclassified and recognized another kind.
paleolithic diet has nothing to do with the tips of modern nutritionists
You may have heard about paleodiete. Nutritionists say you should eat what our ancestors ate presumably, that is, meat and cereals, of course, without the "Big Macs." Yet ideas about this type of food is not quite true.
Take the flour. Followers paleodiety recommended to refuse the bread, because 10,000 years ago there was no agriculture (namely, that it is considered the starting point of this diet). But in 2010 in Italy and the Czech Republic milling stones were found, which is already 30,000 years. There are other differences. While most of us assume that our ancestors ate a lot of meat, National Geographic recently concluded that, most likely, this dish was a great rarity, only when the hunt was very successful.
Finally, all the plants and animals have undergone such changes in the past 10,000 years, that any attempt to copy the ancient diet just useless. Now withdrawn such crops and livestock that our ancestors could not even dream of such.
The Great Silk Road was much more important than just a shopping path
The network of trade routes extending from present-day Italy to Indonesia, this is the Great Silk Road - an ancient symbol of commerce. One name is before the eyes of the images alone merchants, overcoming hardships hard way to get to the farthest corners of the world.
Nevertheless, the Silk Road was much more than a regular trade route. Along with the merchants, it was possible to meet the monks, artists, refugees, spies.
Our forefathers gave Silk Road not only silk. In a world without newspapers, TV and the Internet was a means of communication between different peoples. People walking on it, and brought the news, gossip, and even fashion. He even served as the spread of religious beliefs. The Spread of Buddhism in Asia as the main religion was mainly due to traveling along this path the monks preach their faith to all oncoming travelers. No less important were the refugees. Although rarely Silk Road is described as a way for people fleeing oppression, however, there were a lot of them. And this brought a stream of a culture, science, technology. The Great Silk Road can be like this, as it is written in the textbooks, but traders were only a small part of it.
In ancient China, practiced human sacrifice
Thinking of human sacrifice, we imagine the bloodthirsty Aztecs or Mayas, who shed blood, and to the sun rose. But human sacrifice was common in another culture: in ancient China.
The ancient Chinese were extremely violent. In 2007, archaeologists unearthed a mass grave filled with the bodies of 47 people, sacrificed to, and in the hereafter they can continue to serve his master. Early Shang letters contain information about 37 different kinds of sacrifices.
If Greece and Rome, this practice has been completed a long time ago, in China, people were sacrificed up until recently. Even during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) emperor's wife went to the afterlife with the deceased ruler. Chinese society is killing people for religious purposes, even in the days of sailing "Mayflower".
In Rome persecuted many religions (not only Christian)
The history of the first martyrs persecuted by the Romans, is one of the myths about the foundation of Christianity. Preferring to die rather than renounce his God unnamed victim was an example of the future of Christians. And yet there is a part of history, which is not described in textbooks. Christians were persecuted not more than representatives of other religions. Just as Nero mortally hated Christians, other rulers hated the other cults. In 186 BC. e. The Senate passed a bill to ban the cult of Bacchus - a new religion based on the worship of Dionysus. As well as later the Christians, to the followers of the cult of Bacchus slandered, portrayed as heretics and enemies of the state. They are brutally oppressed. Their tortured and killed. And they were not the only ones. Later subjected to persecution druids, like the Jews. There was even a period when time stopped the persecution of Christians - instead victims were followers of other cults. So that the Christians were not unique to people who were persecuted, they were among the many who fell under the cruelty of the Romans.