Buildings with slope
In ancient times, the slope of the tower and the building was the result of calculation in the construction. Today, the slope of the architecture - it's a creative idea of the architect. Engineers and designers are able to realize the most incredible projects architects.
In 1919, the architect-constructivist Vladimir Tatlin created the tower, which was planned to erect in Moscow or Leningrad. Height - 400 meters. The inclination of the normal - 23, 5 degrees. Planned materials - glass and steel.
The draft tower is a combination of two sloping metal coils, consisting of arranged one above the other buildings of various geometric shapes, but it harmoniously interconnected. Through the building of mechanisms to rotate around its axis. The lower, the largest building had a shape of a cube, it rotates at a speed of one revolution per year. Above it was located in the building of a pyramid shape with a rotation speed of one revolution per month. cylinder speed - one revolution per day. There are only models, drawings and designs that impress to this day.
"Gate of Europe" (Puerta de Europa de Madrid, before Torres KIO) - the twin towers. Madrid, Spain
This is the world's first inclined skyscrapers. Built in 1994 in the style of postmodernism, the towers are inclined to each other at an angle of 15 degrees. Height - 114 meters, 26 floors. The building architecture is used a la the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Thanks to the successful design solution, the composition architecture is still unique. Both towers were built at the same time, and their construction is also finished in the same time. Puerta de Europa lined Project American architects Philip Johnson and John Burgi on the funds allocated by Kuwait (firm Kuwait Investments Office).
The frame of the building is made of stainless steel, it is clearly visible from the outside. Inside the set of monolithic concrete counterweight dimensions 60 * 10 * 10 meters, which balances the 15-degree slope. On the roofs are equipped with helicopter landing pad. The left pad is colored in blue, and the right - in the red. Also on the left tower you can see the logo of the oldest Spanish bank "Caja Madrid". On the right the tower - a symbol of the largest "real" construction firm. But he was done much later than the first logo.
Audience Aula Medica Karolinska Medical Institute. Sweden
The area of the conference room of the lecture the housing having regard to the letter outlines V, is 13 700 sq. m.
Such an unusual shape is due to the task of architects to write on the border of construction volume of the hall for 1000 seats (in the figure - half-open fan, or a circle sector) almost three storeys high. That is why the facades of the building have a negative slope, and one of the most striking architectural features is rounded cantilever that resembles the bow of the ship.
six-storey structure is supported by three supporting pylon installed in places of articulation of the letter V. imaginary lines in the same points to the nuclei of rigidity adjacent staircases and elevator shafts. facade system consists of vertical Glulam beams and diagonal inclined jumpers. They form a "grid".
The Institute for Public Policy and International Relations of the Issam Fares (IFI), Beirut, Lebanon
The project Zaha Hadid Architects. As usual, the building has turned ordinary. The task was not easy: a modern new building of the Institute had to "fit" in the context of 19th-century buildings, and all the basic technical facilities to fit in a sleek building. It turned out the building with a total area of 3,000 square meters, has a three-part structure, which reflects the three main objectives of the institute: a space for research activities, a meeting place for the university guests and "connection" to the University of the scientific process worldwide.
The three-part structure develops vertically, and each part is provided with a separate entrance, aided by the significant slope on the plot. The building is located in a small area with a difference in elevation of 7 meters between the northern and southern borders. The area of the first three floors of the building is reduced and significantly expanded 4-5 floor and the roof terrace at the expense of 21-meter cantilever.
The building is made of reinforced concrete. Concrete modules have a contoured outer plane. The relief decoration on the front, slanted slopes of the windows, pointing - all these details are impeccable.
The Montreal Tower. Montreal, Canada
The tower is part of the Olympic Stadium in Montreal. It is the tallest inclined tower in the world. Height - 175 meters. On it are observation platforms, offering spectacular views of Montreal.
Visitors can reach the top on a transparent glass cable car, which seats 76 passengers. Funicular - unique in the world, operating in a curved structure. It has a hydraulic system that allows the cabin to remain horizontal during the two-minute trip to the top.
The angle of the tower - 45 degrees. By the way, the slope of the Leaning Tower of Pisa - just 5 degrees. How can a structure with a sloping surface cling without falling? The answer to this puzzle lies in the weight ratio: at the top of the mass of the tower - 8000 tons, and at the base of the concrete mass is 145 000 tonnes.
Skyscraper Capital Gate. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
The unique 160-meter skyscraper slanted. Put into operation in late 2011. Even at the stage of construction skyscraper was included in the Guinness Book of Records as the building with the largest slope in the world. The deviation from the vertical axis of 18 degrees in the west direction.
The foundation of a skyscraper, designed by the architectural firm RMJM, fortified 490 piles, hammered to a depth of 30 meters into the ground. The basis for the design of the building is a steel-reinforced "skeleton" of 8, 5 thousand plates diagonal design. It was he who distributes the load and does not allow the tower to fall.
top of the grid 728 of large glass panels in the shape of faceted diamond mounted reinforcing steel, each of which comprises 18 glass and weighs about 5 tons. Total on the facade of the tower 12, 5 thousand glasses.
Climbing Excalibur. Groningen, Netherlands
Excalibur - is the world's tallest wall for climbers. Holland is not located in a mountainous area, so the city authorities decided to create artificial conditions for those who prefer outdoor activities and adrenalin rush.
The height of buildings - 37 meters, specifically curved shape. Only experienced climbers will be able to fully overcome the obstacle. Access to the wall is not limited, and everyone can use it absolutely free.
CCTV headquarters. Beijing, China
The building was built in 2009, now there is the main office of the central Chinese television. This building was the largest project of Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas. Loop-like building was "deliberate attack" on the banal forms familiar skyscrapers.
The height of 234 meters, 54 floors. Kind of a very original: the building is a ring-shaped structure of five vertical and horizontal sections. Two inclined towers connected by the top cantilever: protruding console 75 m to the west, 67 meters to the south.
The two towers are inclined from the vertical by 6 degrees and turned so that the support and balance each other. The main feature of the design is a skyscraper building space lattice that forms the bulk. Its pattern is easy to read on the facade. The integrity of image forming glass panel silver-gray color harmonizing with the Beijing air.
Torre de telecomunicaciones de Montjuïc (Montjuic Communications Tower). Barcelona. Spain
The project by Santiago Calatrava. The second name - "Tower of Calatrava". The total height of the elegant tower -. 136 m Concept silhouette futuristic buildings architect developed, based on the image of the athlete-torchbearer. Tilting main vertical composition by 17 degrees toward the city tower gives additional dynamic and semi-circular crown on top of the whole as it is crowned hill.
The basis of the tower is put design, reminiscent of the graceful sloping bowl on foot. The support structure in the form of a wide "umbrella", lined with white ceramic mosaic, smoothly into the roof of the office building. In the center of the cup mounted TV antenna-needle, which concurrently serves as also a sundial.
"Leaning Tower" in America. Niles (Chicago), USA
This "Leaning Tower" is really more than 70 years decorates the American city in Illinois Niles (Niles - Illinois Chicago suburb of capital).
Pragmatic Americans made a leaning tower functional: it is intended - a water. Built in the early 30-ies of XX century as a replica of the Leaning - but exactly half the original size. The angle of deviation from vertical - 5 and 3 degrees.
Bella Sky Hotel. Copenhagen, Denmark
can be called Bella Sky hotel in the most inclined in the world. Hotel designed by architects 3XN studio. The unusual shape of the building. It consists of two interconnected towers height 76, 5 m with an angle of inclination of 15 degrees. 23 floors. Area - 42 000 square meters.
Inclined towers are not just bold architectural experiment, they have a specific purpose. Each room offers a panoramic view of the landscape of the park and the new Amager district Ørestad, as well as all the historic rooftops of Copenhagen. All 814 rooms are in the northern modernist style - simple, functional, high level of design and materials. The interior - leather, maple and oak. Bella Sky Hotel is informally referred to as "a pair of dancing."
The Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado, USA
The project Daniel Libeskind - the first large-scale project in the United States and a unique design solution for America. When you look at the building it seems like it is falling apart. The museum does not have vertical walls. The design of the No to center node, all nodes - are different, they can overlap up to 8 cores.
The stability of the structure is achieved through the use of steel plates, mounted in the concrete foundation. They attached all supporting columns. Paul becomes a kind tie for the walls, and all the construction beams work mainly in tension.
To calculate ARUP engineers used a special 3D-model. This is the first project for Arup, when construction documents in 3D was a direct contractual requirement. For all the non-standard design, thanks to this model and the good work of the designers, all components failed in the factory. On the site they just collected. It was calculated not only all construction joints, but also placement of the holes in the carrier for laying engineering communications elements. "The Nose", or "rock", the museum is extended to a height of 37 m 2.
Fundam: collecting belt on piles (piles 116 with a diameter from 61 to 122 cm, depending on the distance from the rock). Supporting structures: steel frame bolted and welded connections (weight 2740 tons of steel beams 3100 + 16 500 AMD steel parts, bolts 50 000, 2850 welds.). Protecting designs: Titanium finish and granite slabs.
Many critics believe that the abundance of non-vertical walls - this is a drawback. However, museum workers are convinced that the architecture of the building - one of the attractions of the museum.
"Lahti Center", St. Petersburg, Russia
under construction in St. Petersburg center "Lahti center" is unique not only in the presence of a skyscraper. multi-purpose building adjacent to it surpasses the high-rise area and is not inferior to the unique design solutions.
variable height of the building - from 22 to 84 meters. At the maximum height of 84 meters console departure is 25 meters, that forms the inclined shape of the building.
span hallways on the lower floors of the building support 36-meter Arthur Vierendeel truss.