Generation one child
• Generation of one child
On each photo of the series "Two of us", the authorship of the Chinese photographer Fang Shi San, shows two men, one of them does not exist. Are brothers and sisters who have never been born as a result of one-child policy adopted by the Chinese authorities in 1979. "The generation of a child," the loneliest in Chinese history, so says the author of this project, which also feels her victim. The creation of this photo project, which was launched in 2009, was not only protest but also a kind of ceremony to get rid of loneliness for him. Look very sad pictures of people from generation one child.
Fang Shi San photographs of lonely people who have never had any brothers and sisters, in the pictures of each of them there is a twin. The author calls his photographic project "Two of us" record of this generation's tragic history.
Almost 40 years in China lasted one-child policy, which was introduced in order to avoid a demographic disaster in the country. It was assumed that each pair will have only one child, but there were exceptions to this rule. It allowed to have a second child the couple, who were the only children of their parents, as well as some ethnic minorities and residents of the villages in which the girl was born first.
This policy has been criticized for inhumane methods of birth control, forced abortion and sterilization. Eventually it became also visible and its side effects, one of which is the aging population.
According to statistics, in 2012, for the first time in decades, began declining working-age population. Today, 14 percent of the Chinese - people older than 60 years, while the world average is 10 percent.
According to experts, if the trend in the demographic situation in the country continue, in 2050 25 per cent of China's population will be over 65 years old.
In 2013, the total fertility rate in China amounted to 1, 55 (the number of children born per woman). For comparison, the highest rate in the world has the Niger - 6, 89 children, and the smallest of Singapore - 0, 8. In Russia, this figure is small - 1, 61, Belarus is even less - 1, 47, and in Ukraine - 1, 3 .
Another problem China's family policy has become a huge imbalance in the society. Boys, as it turned out, in Chinese society are valued more than girls, so female fetuses were removed by pregnant women on a massive scale. It is estimated that by the end of this decade, the number of men of the 1, 35 billion Chinese women exceeds the number of 24 million.
The aging population also has negative consequences for the economy, because it leads to a reduction in the workforce and reduce the competitiveness of China's economy based on the production.
In the beginning of November last year, the service Sina.weibo, Chinese analogue Twittera (western version is not available in China), addressed to its users with a question: "Would you like to the law were allowed to have two children?". 71, 7 percent of respondents answered "yes."
In the middle of November 2013 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has made a final decision on the introduction of the new law, according to which two children can have those couples in which at least one spouse was the only child in the family. Revolutionary changes in the one-child policy should, according to the calculations of the Government, to prevent rapidly progressive aging of the population. However, these changes will be introduced gradually, according to the plan, province by province, depending on the demographic situation in each of them.
However, analysts are very cautious in assessing the impact of the liberalization of the law on the demographic situation in the country. "China does not threaten the baby boom. The reasons are well known: to change the model of Chinese families, especially in urban areas. The Chinese do not want to have a second child, not only because of the restrictive policy and the fear that they will be fined for its violation, but also because they have started to earn money to buy the house and consume. And the child should be a lot of money ", - he explained in an interview for the Beijing newspaper" Global Times "Wang Pei - deputy head of the health committee, and family planning.
"As a result, the family policy of the country, almost every child born in the city after 1980, including me, is the only child in the family" - says Fang Shi San. That is more than 100 million Chinese have no siblings. According to the author, it left a deep indelible mark on the personality of each of the one-child generation.