Evolution of skates from the Cimmerians to the present day
• The evolution of skates from the Cimmerians to the present
Skating - one of the oldest inventions of mankind, and is extremely popular in today's world. They took a prominent part in the professional sports world, and in the daily lives of millions of fans of active pastime in the fresh frosty air.
Today we decided to follow the evolution of skates and related sports from the very beginning to the present day.
It is believed that the first proud owners of skates were Cimmerians - the nomadic tribes who lived 3200 years ago in the northern Black Sea coast. They were tied at the feet of the animal bones. As did many other people, including our ancestors, for many, many centuries.
From the 13th century horses were human means of transportation across frozen rivers, lakes and channels in the Nordic countries. Even then, the Dutch began to make the skates, consisting of wooden framework, into which the metal strips. These skates belts fastened to the shoe. In the photo: the skates of the time with a modern edge.
In the works of Dutch artist Hendrick Avercamp, written in the early 1600s, is clearly visible as the ice does not just moving on skates, but already playing some game with sticks in their hands. Such Holland saw Peter I during his famous trip to Europe, from which, among other innovations he brought to Russia and skates, permeated with the Dutch folk fun.
But already today the Dutch skate and play hockey on the frozen canals of Amsterdam, continuing the tradition of their ancestors. As if he had not passed since 400 years already!
Peter would not have been a great reformer, had just borrowed a European invention. It is believed that he made the first breakthrough in the evolution of skates, skates for inventing nailed shoes.
By the way, the word "skate" was, is not difficult to guess the word horse. And this is due to the fact that the Russian masters often cut on the long curved noses possessed by the first skates, figures of horses.
After Peter's skating in Russia forgotten almost one hundred years. Interest in them is returned, when the fashion was all English and skates at the time have become very popular in the UK.
So, by the way, already ride in modern London.
The first-ever World Cup speed skating was held in January 1889 in Amsterdam, and there was the champion ... Russian skater Alexander Panshin (in the photo). It is believed that he invented skates - put the disturbing curl, lengthen the blade, so that the speed was higher, and suggested the use of a tube into which a blade is soldered. These skates for running and remained for many years ahead.
A month later, in February 1889, in Moscow on Petrovka, the first in the championship of Russia in skating. Of course, not without the participation of Panshin.
Only in the 90-ies of XX century device skates were radically changed. Fundamentally new skates with "detached" heel that athletes called "flip-flops". For the first time they have been used at the Olympic Games in Nagano.
Evolution curly skates was no less exciting. The first club of figure skating fans appeared in Edinburgh in 1742 still. But the first who combined dancing and skating, Jackson became an American Heync - he was the first to ride in theatrical costumes and the music. And it happened in the middle of the 19th century. Haynes called the "father of figure skating."
In the 1871 figure skating has been officially recognized as a sport, and in 1908 it became the first figure skating is a winter sport that has entered into the program Summer Olympics in London. (Photo: British skaters at the Olympics in London in 1908)
In the 40s, a new kind of figure skating - ice dancing. These Olympics included only in 1976. A Soviet skaters - Lyudmila Pakhomova and Alexander Gorshkov - became the first Olympic champion in this discipline.
As for themselves skates - in the early 20th century shoes curly skates are much shorter and got rivets. Heel, on the contrary, increased, and the blade teeth appeared. They suggested that the Swedish skater Ulrich Salchow - the first Olympic champion in figure skating at the Olympics in London in 1908 (pictured).
The next time the horses have changed only in the 50's, c development of ice dancing. Blades have "dancers" are much shorter, so as not to hurt each other, and boots - much softer.
Ice hockey in our country officially emerged only in the 46th year, nearly 60 years later than in many other countries. But the "Russian hockey" called hockey. Ice Hockey - Canadian invention, the first of its rules formulated in Montreal in 1879. Hockey skates then were similar to running, but the evolution is not spared and.
In the late 50's players called their horses "spotykachki". They were more like braces because of the almost right angle blade. They were replaced by "eider", characterized by a shorter blade. In the 60s skates have become harder, stability and maneuverability. At the tip of the blade, made already in the form of a tube, there was a plastic fuse. And in the early 70's hockey skates purchased almost modern. However, due to the height of the ridge between the blade and the boot there is a gap, which sometimes flew washer. New advanced technologies focused on comfort, provides the best results - they allow the skates to take an individual form of athlete's foot, subjected to a special heat treatment. This process is called thermoforming.
Muscovites are skating in the park
In addition to professional sports, skating as a way of entertainment each year gaining more and more popularity around the world and in our country. Everywhere open rollers, brings together fans of fun and to spend time outdoors.