Tour of the Cheboksary hydroelectric power station
• Tour Cheboksary GES
Oh ... Yes, that's right, a big sigh before writing this post.
Actually, what's the problem? The fact that the station is perhaps the most-term construction in our country. Its construction began already in 1968. Like any large construction project in the USSR everything was done thoroughly and slowly. Although the construction of any hydroelectric power station is so unique, it requires a tremendous amount of preparatory and survey operations. So here, only in 1973, after five years, began the first concrete works. Finally, in November 1980, the Volga was closed, and already 31 December of the same year the station was put into operation with a single hydraulic unit at an intermediate elevation of 61 meters. In order to navigate the spring of 1981 the level was raised to 63 m.
As usual hydroelectric introduced gradually: in 1981 it was put into operation two hydraulic unit, in 1982-1984 - four hydroelectric annually, two hydroelectric, and in 1986 the last in 1985. Construction work on the building of the hydroelectric power station was completed in 1985. Godu 1986 K (500 kV, two three blocks - 220 kV) switchyard HPP earned by the design scheme, the basic construction of hydroelectric facilities has been completed.
But in the spring of 1981 and the present, the station continues to operate at the level of the intermediate reservoir -. 63 m In this connection, it is not officially put into operation, and its construction is considered unfinished. Like this.
The fact is that in the 80 years suddenly escalated itching environmentalists and against the background of general liberalization in the country they inserted a stick into a huge building - say to fill the reservoir to the design level will lead to irreversible ecological catastrophe. But is it really?
It seems to me that environmentalists little cunning. And today their statements, apparently lobbied the Nizhny Novgorod region, which have little to do with the environment. But not all so simple, unfortunately. The fact is that the situation can not be left in the form as it is. It is necessary either to raise the mark, or something to do with the reservoir, as many engineering defenses that were built simply do not work. And she works at station not rated head, which leads to increased wear of equipment. A mark of 63 meters has a very bad effect on shipping and water intakes .... Okay, so let's see what's behind the station.
Business Card Station - five transmission line towers. On the photos of them, really, four. The fifth remains on the left-overs, but all uppercase photos available!
constructed a flyover flourish through the gateway to the entrance to the administration building. Overpass was a surprise.
In the driveway w / e to complete the construction of the station, with already existing gateway, two sunk the bridge was built. In this photo you can see how the w / d path terminates at the gateway. Needless span w / d of the bridge hanging on the winch under the overpass. Just below you will see a different perspective - everything will be clear.
Remote Management Gateway. The first locking carried out in 1981, in 1989, the floodgates taken into operation. From 1981 to 2006, it produced 202,444 sluicing, missing 473,644 vessel. In recent years, traffic increased, but quite a bit. And that's the problem with a guaranteed depth of the channel do not allow it to grow even more. For navigation in 2012 was 4121 sluicing, missed 8446 vessels in 2013 (through September) - sluicing 3375, 7069 ships.
In contrast to other gateways hydro Volga cascade, gateways equipped Cheboksarskaya HPP distribution system filling chambers, excluding formation of waves in the course of locking and rocking the vessels.
shipping locks Cheboksary Hydroelectric single chamber two line cameras are numbered 17 and 18, and the dimensions of 290 * 30 m.
The strategic objective of increasing the guaranteed depth of the Unified system of the European part of Russia from 365 to 400 cm in the end turned out to be not realized. The section from Gorodtsa to Lower Novgorod (about 60 km) is necessary to ensure the depth of 4 meters is provided only when the average daily consumption of at Nizhegorodskaya HPP over 1400 m³ / s, but this is not ensured the normal operation of gateways Nizhegorodskaya HPP. But it is in theory. In reality, there is no even a depth of 365 cm! In the critical areas the depth of not more than 2, 5 m ...
In the end, the plot riverboats pass with dvadtsatiprotsentnym underload for two days, and passenger vessels is allowed only for three hours a day, when produced higher discharges from the Nizhny Novgorod HPP. Transiting large vessels are forced to unload part of the cargo vessels with less draft, place the shallow (the place for locking up two weeks!), And then re-loaded.
And here is the suspended span for railway under the overpass.
At the end of the navigation has been running one thread. Upper gate broken camera is used as a mini-dock for its own fleet. You see on the left dice around the gate? When the level of the upstream below 63 m ship may cling to the upper threshold gateway head. Here with these cubes and formed the very threshold, which is called "wren".
Cheboksarskaya HPP is a typical low-pressure channel type hydroelectric power station (GES into the pressure building integrated front and is a continuation of the dam). The main construction of the station: earth dam, spillway dam, powerhouse, levee outer harbor, a gateway shipping, outdoor switchgear. Let's see what's inside.
Alas, the great mnemonic scheme (which are fine, but little functional) die. Now everything is displayed on the computer screen.
the error that led to the fact that during operation of the turbine have been translated in propeller mode (fixed blade at 45 °) were admitted When designing turbine design. Operation in this mode results in a low efficiency of the hydraulic units. Now RusHydro has already conducted the reconstruction of five turbines and restored their design characteristics.
A hole in the suction tube. There are high and deep. By the way, in the mirror of water required to float a lifeline. If someone suddenly drops, then the employee will be a chance for him to wait and grab aid.
In all the big stations. Compare the size of the person and the space between the drive turbine and generator.
big nut - large keys.
A total station installed hydraulic units 18, each of which develops rated at a head of 18, 9 m power of 78 MW. But this power is to be implemented at full pressure. Now he is five meters below, and capacity of only 44 MW.
More details - large crane. Generator rotor weighs 480 tonnes and the turbine unit - 510.
station Water turbines are environmentally friendly design, eliminating oil leakage into the water.
spillway dam length of 144, 5 m. It has 6 spans and is designed for maximum passage of water in a volume of 14 000 m³ / s. Since due to the low level of the reservoir has no reserve capacity for accumulation of flood, then all the water during heavy inflows passed in transit, leading to flooding in the downstream - every year in floods waterlogged residential sector in Mari village Kokshaysk located below the HPP on flow. In the spring of 2012 due to the rapid development of high water and, consequently, high water flow through hydroelectric complex, in this village were flooded more than a dozen homes. A general can theoretically lead to a strong and flooding. Hello, one percent flood. Let me remind you that the last time he was in 1926. And sometimes it is once in a hundred years ...
lowest level creates a lot of problems both in the upper and downstream. For example, normal operation is not guaranteed intake downstream hydroelectric minimum level due to insufficient sanitary drain.
However, more problems in the upstream reservoir and - it has a large actual shallow water area (31, 20 instead of 5%, 7% design) that does not meet the sanitary rules and leads to deterioration of water quality. Although environmentalists claim that in case of increasing the level of all the reservoir will turn into a swamp. No specific evidence. But the following can be said that any ecosystem there is a margin of safety - the ability to cleanse itself. Water scarcity in the 5 km ³ when not design around Cheboksary Reservoir led to the disruption of its hydrological balance: it is warm and shallow waters in the summer, provoking the formation of algae, and the development of anaerobic infections in the winter. With elevated levels bowl filled reservoir, shallow water, the proportion will return to normal and improve water quality. And in the photo zabralnaya beam Cheboksary GES. At the level of 63 m upper part intake openings located above the water and any debris floats to straight, which makes its catching. In addition to saving time, this beam does not fulfill its protective function - when the reservoir is covered with ice, it creates an additional burden on the trash screen.
But the biggest problem - a gradual destruction of the already constructed engineering protection systems that are not designed to work with a mark of 63 meters. They need to do their job regardless of the water level in the reservoir. It is a matter of human security. Just unfinished protection systems have led to the fact that 20 to 33 percent of the Zarechnaya Nizhny Novgorod is located in waterlogged. Again, it's not so easy there.
I I go to Yadrin. At the church the inscription, that in May 1926 recorded the highest water level. That is the same one percent flood.
Along the Cheboksary reservoir was built dams and other engineering protection to just save the land from flooding, including a maximum flood. But the dam thing is insidious, it is water on both sides. Therefore, for pumping water from the other side, from the housing, pump stations were built. Alas, Yadrinsky was stolen. In the picture the result - the water accumulated on the side, creating a vast swamp.
And the only concrete frame remained on the station. All zasral and plundered.
The water is collected and pumped her nothing. Meet - swamp-lake.
This dam was designed to work only with high floods. In fact reassurance ... But, as you can see, the locals found it an inexhaustible source of inert materials.
Wood in water. The reservoir is not raised from the design level, a pumping station was first on the balance of the local administration, rather than HPS. And Yadrin administration in the 90 years ran out of money for such a trifle. The result in the photo.
But the locals still just make out a dam on the sand.
High Coast Sura hands. Every year it is destroyed, picking up the already constructed dam.
When the mark of 68 meters it will be the waterfront and will work to strengthen its concrete slabs.
Fire Congress to water. Alas, there is no water.
Building Bridges 68 mark.
The destruction of coastal fortifications. Concrete slabs just puchit.
And many more that remain behind the scenes. The destruction of the already constructed but not working correctly, very, very much.
The project of raising the level of many supporters and opponents. There is no consensus there will be no. Is now carried out state expertise should put an end to this long question. It is true in the case of raising the level, many residents illegally built villas, mansions, hunting grounds on the shore of the reservoir will be dissatisfied. Incidentally, the respected government of Nizhny Novgorod region, and why in floodplains suddenly appeared more than 2,300 buildings? Because officially there is no economic activity is not permitted! And in 1985, it was carried out a complete relocation (had only 72 home !!!) and was fully prepared bed of the reservoir ... I do not why you train so pseudo-environmentalists to save these illegal constructions?