Crimea mountain towns
• Cave cities of Crimea
On the inner ridge of the Crimean Mountains in the southwestern part of the Crimean peninsula is located 14 cave cities. Crimean mountains in this area are inherent steep southern slopes and gentle north. The mountains in this part of the peninsula have a smooth plateau. Cliffs do the approaches to the plateau inaccessible. In ancient times, people have used these mountains to build fortresses, walls reinforcing the only affordable place.
Today will be a story about several well-preserved ancient cave towns of Crimea.
Arriving by train from Sevastopol to Bakhchisarai, sit on a bus to the village Staroselie. This is an extreme point, which can be reached by transport. the gorge rises up to the pedestrian road Satro-Uspensky Cave Monastery:
Location is worth the attention. Straight cut in sheer cliffs carved caves in which monks' cells are placed:
The Holy Assumption Cave Monastery was founded by Byzantine monks ikonopochitateley no later than the VIII century. Located in the tract Mariam-Dere (Mary Gorge) near Bakhchisarai. During the first defense of Sevastopol in the Crimean War in 1854-1855 years in the cells, the home of the pilgrims and other buildings of the monastery housed a hospital. Died of wounds were buried in the monastery cemetery. In 1921 the monastery was closed by the Soviet authorities.
After the relocation from Crimea in other regions of the USSR in 1941, Germans, Armenians, Bulgarians, Greeks, and in 1944 - the Crimean Tatars in the monastery for decades nearby mental hospital. In 1993 he returned to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Restored three of the five monastic churches, monastic cells Corps, abbot house and bell tower. At the bottom of the gorge is now under construction on the expansion of the monastery complex.
Inside take pictures did not work t. To. On we go with the abbots rushed arguing that pictures of the monastery itself has banned the lord ...
bypasses all available for viewing room and head up the road to the cave city - the fortress Chufut - Calais:
On the way to our attention comes nondescript direction sign, reading about the grand discovery of the 21st century:
The find was an ancient 45-meter sedimentary well of the fortress Chufut - Kale:
The construction consists of a shaft with a suitable sloped 120 - meter tunnel. The volume of work at that time is enormous:
Fork. Tunnel right through the flooded and dozens of meters rests on a dead end:
Adit left out in the mine with the outgoing spiral staircase down, hollowed into the rock:
At the bottom, according to the creators, accumulate, and then climbed pure water:
On top of the well shaft has an exit to the surface:
On the ground it looks like this:
Not far away, at the foot of the fortress Chufut-kale, is another, much more modest in scale, artesian well. Previously, he also was located deep in the rock, but whether a piece of rock fell off, or cut through the wall, archaeologists, and now he is a sectional view at the foot of the fortress:
It's time to look inside the fortress. Inside are two gates: Kiyuk Kapu (in the east) and Kuchuk mouthpiece (in the southwest). On the other hand almost impregnable fortress. However, we have decided for fun to climb over the wall, just to the north gate Kiyuk Kapu, where there is a weak spot. You can climb up having minimum skills of mountaineering. By the way, in the fortress entrance fee. Gates Kiyuk Kapu:
A small note:
Calais - medieval fortress town is located 2, 5 km from Bakhchisarai. The fortress was once the capital of the Crimean Khanate. The name is translated from the Crimean Tatar language as a "Jewish fortress", because the Tartars believed Karaite Jews living there because of the similarity of their religion to Judaism.
The town was founded probably in the V century as a fortified settlement on the border of the Byzantine possessions. From the XIV century, the city began to settle and the Karaites, who at the time of formation of the Crimean Khanate were already a large part of the population of the city. Calais remained the main center of the Crimean Karaites to the middle of the XIX century, but gradually emptied - residents moved from the low-water plateau more livable place.
See inside the fortress almost nothing. Most of the space is covered with thickets. In the center of the territory of the old stone road runs from the beaten track of the carts.
On the south-west side is a small complex of caves and several commercial buildings. Big and Small kenassas (Karaite house of worship)
Gate Kuchut Kapu (South Entrance)
The complex business of caves:
The former estate of a rich system of underground rooms Chaush-Kobasa ( "Head of the Cave") in the northern part of the fortress:
On the way to descend into the grotto, I heard a beautiful violin melody coming from the ground:
Inside played violin. As soon as I wanted to take his picture, he immediately ran to the side :) left his bag in the frame. Acoustics is simply incredible! If it was not a violinist, I would be there myself to shout:
In the same part of the fortress is a viewing platform. There are stunning views of the beam Ashlama Bink-Dere and Mount Besh-Kosh.
After completely dark, put forward in the side of the mountain Tepe-Kerman
I do not know how much would last walk on forest trails, we did not come across the parking lot of experienced tourists, which have prompted us to the right path. Do not risk to look mountain towns of printouts satellite maps and applications on smartphones. Virtually all the space in the trees, the tops of which almost nothing is visible, and the satellite binding on the phone now and then misses on indecent distance. It is time for me to get a real gps-navigator.
By midnight we were still at the top of the plateau. The rise of the hill by the way is not pleasant. The slope is very steep and the path now and then pours underfoot:
A small note:
Cave city Tepe-Kerman existed during the VI to the XIV century and reached its greatest prosperity in the XII-XIII centuries. Feature Tepe Kermena is greatest, compared with other cities cave concentration caves. An area of about 1 hectare there are more than 250. The main part of the city is on top of the plateau (540 meters above sea level).
An overwhelming number vnutriskalnyh facilities here (about 85%) was used for household needs. Of these, about 88%, or 170-180 rooms are stables for animals. The remainder of the business premises represented estates cellars, tanks for water storage. Non-economic caves used for housing and storage.
In many caves there is a hole in the ceiling (most likely to smoke). Taking a walk on the plateau should be extremely careful. Many of these holes are almost invisible among the thickets:
One of the most remarkable caves cave complex - "the church baptistery" (The church with the baptismal). Located on the north-eastern edge of the plateau:
The loss of the town is tied in some versions to raid the Golden beklyaribeka Nogai in 1299.
The parking was decided to organize the so-called "Dragon Tooth" directly in one of the caves t. To. All the dresses are not weak is blown by the wind. The place was very cozy, and we sincerely celebrated the last night of our trip to the Crimea, a small fire:
Waking up in the morning, I was taken aback opened view from the ledge of the plateau. On the ledge overlook the dozens of kilometers.