8 ruined cities that remain a mystery
The world is full of ruined cities, but some of them are so mysterious story, she is amazing. Often we do not know who built them, and how this could create in the past. We suggest that you read about the eight cities.
1. Çatalhöyük, Turkey
In the 7500-ies BC. e. this city in Mesopotamia (present-day Turkey), inhabited by thousands of people. Historians believe that Çatalhöyük is one of the first human settlements of urban type, but the culture of the people who inhabited it, not like anything to which we are accustomed.
First of all, the city is built in the form of a honeycomb, where homes are separated by walls and doors are made in the roof. People walked these streets, rooftops, and to get into the living room, down the stairs. Doorways were often marked with bull's horns and deceased family members were buried in the floor of each house.
What happened to the people who lived in this city and its culture, is unknown. Their architectural style seems to have been unique, although archaeologists have found many statues of the goddess of fertility, like the cult-like objects found in other cities of the region. So it is quite likely that, when the city was abandoned, its culture is reflected among other peoples of the Mesopotamian region.
2. Palenque, Mexico
Palenque - one of the largest surviving Mayan city-states. We can say that the city symbolizes the mystery of the whole of their civilization before the Maya dominated throughout most of modern-day Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and Honduras, and then disappeared. Although the Mayan descendants still thrive in Mexico and Central America, no one can say exactly why the Mayans abandoned the big city and finally abandoned them around the 1400s. The heyday of Palenque came in the classic period of the Mayan civilization, about 700-1100 years n Tide. e. As in many cities the Maya of Palenque were temples, palaces and markets. However, in Palenque is home to some of the most detailed sculptures and inscriptions left by the Maya civilization, from which you can get information about the history of this people: battles, rulers, and everyday life. Theory of why this city and many other Mayan cities were abandoned, include war, hunger and climate change.
3. Cahokia, USA
Located on the other side of the Mississippi River opposite the modern city of St. Louis, Cahokia for hundreds of years has been the largest city in North America. Its inhabitants built huge earthen buildings, and some of them can be visited even today, as well as a large area, which served, apparently, as the markets and meeting places. There is evidence that its inhabitants have used very sophisticated farming techniques and a few times a year redirected Mississippi tributaries for irrigation.
As in the case of the Maya people of Cahokia heyday came in the 600-1400-ies famous district. e. No one knows why the city was abandoned by its inhabitants, as well as the way in the region in ancient times could live so many people - for hundreds of years the city's population was less than 40-thousand people.
4. Derinkuyu, Turkey
Derinkuyu - a huge underground city, which existed in the era of early Byzantium. The date of its foundation is unknown, but some sources believe that this happened in the VII-th century BC. e. But the real city grew between 500-1000 N-ies. e .: in this time there were five underground levels, where they lived 20 thousand people, along with the cattle, and there were kitchens, churches and wineries. Locals have dug tunnels and rooms beneath their homes in the soft sand of volcanic rock in the central Turkish region of Cappadocia. In the Middle Ages flourished entire underground civilization. City could serve as a model for any future community trying to survive after the apocalypse.
For centuries, people have fled to the area to find a safe haven from anti-Christian Romans, bandits, and later by anti-Christian Muslims. Inputs can be closed massive stone, and the mine ventilation air flow provided in depth. In the end, even they were dug long tunnels to communicate with other Derinkuyu underground cities in the region. At some point after the X-th century, the city was abandoned, and in 1969 opened to the public.
5. Pompeii, Italy
There is ample historical record testifying in favor of the Roman city of Pompeii was buried under a layer of rock after the catastrophic eruption of Vesuvius in 79 th year, n. e. It is known that the city was partially destroyed by an earthquake a few years before the eruption of the volcano, and that many of the most impressive buildings at the time of the eruption have been erased from the face of the earth. We even know that Vesuvius began to smoke, and was the cause of the earthquake a few days before the fatal eruption. So what's the secret?
In that Pompeii perfectly preserved down to the smallest detail - in fact, they are the same as they were in the 79th year. Some of the details are completely alien to modern man, including decorative statues of penises, strange murals, incomprehensible art and living conditions that are radically different from the life of any modern city. It's one thing to read the history of ancient Rome, and quite another - to walk the streets of the Roman city, has not changed since the heyday of the empire. The mysteries of everyday life are often much more interesting mysteries of the death of civilization.
6. Machu Picchu, Peru
On the Inca Empire is known not so much: they inhabited the territory of modern Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Bolivia and Argentina for hundreds of years before the invasion of the Spaniards destroyed almost all the cities and szhogshih library records (the Inca were the annals via nodes on ropes).
Although we know a lot about Inca technology, architecture and development of agriculture - Machu Picchu contains evidence of the existence of all this - we still can not read what is left of the tapestry containing written reports. And we do not understand how they ruled a vast empire, which was not a single market.
That's right - in Machu Picchu and other Inca cities are no markets than they are very different from most other cities built just around the market and the public square. As such a strong civilization could exist without a market economy? Maybe someday we will know the answer.
7. Tonis, Egypt
The VIII-th century BC. e. This legendary city was the gateway to Egypt - a port city full of incredible monuments, rich merchants and huge buildings. Now he is at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. Tonis decline began with the emergence of Alexandria in 300-s BC. e., but in the end, the fall was literal as well as the city swallowed by the sea, had once been the source of his wealth. Nobody knows how it happened, but in the VIII-th century BC. e. the city was gone - maybe he was a victim of the earthquake.
8. Great Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
One of the biggest mysteries of the southern part of Africa is a huge, walled city known today as the Great Zimbabwe. The city was home to as many as 30 thousand people, the heyday of his arrival on the 1200-1450-ies famous district. e, when it was the heart of the international trade in the region -. Even the locals traded with India and China. Wealth flowed to the city from distant countries, but also the city flourished at the expense of the gold mined in the local mines, and huge herds of cattle. However, aware of the city is not everything - it is not clear how far the influence of the city and the more engaged the locals, but it is obvious that the city was technologically advanced. BBC describes the best preserved monument of the city as follows:
"Great Zimbabwe Monument erected from granite, which is the parent rock of the region, in other words, the predominant species at the local level. During the construction of the method of mixing the dry stone that requires great skill and a certain technological preparation. Monument boundary wall about 20 meters high. Inside there is a series of concentric passages and niches - one of them is the royal niche. Inside the building ceremonial battle axes and gold ornaments were found. "
As happened with many cities of the era, for the flourishing of the Great Zimbabwe followed the mysterious decline. Starvation caused perhaps excessive number of cattle in the surrounding land, could contribute to its extinction. It is also possible that the main trade routes changed. If we knew more about the activities of the city and its trade partners, we could learn more about the reasons for his fall.